IOWA DAY.

September 21, 1898.


The celebration of Iowa Day had been advertised throughout the state of Iowa,
and special trains came from all parts of that state loaded with enthusiastic
visitors.  Excursion rates had been made by all the railroads in Iowa and the
effect of this was early seen in the large crowds which they brought to the
Exposition gates.  The program celebrating this day was one of unusual
interest.  It was held in the Auditorium at 2:30 P.M.   The Auditorium was
filled to overflowing when the exercises were commenced by an organ voluntary,
introducing the following program:

Introductory Address     .    Vice President Allan Dawson
Overture, - "The Wizard of the West", - Ladies' Band of Eldora
Invocation
Violin Solo - Lucile Franchere - Earl Byers, Accompanist
Address - His Excellency, Leslie M. Shaw, Governor of Iowa
Solo - "Delight" - Nellie Mae Brewster
Address, - Gurdon W. Wattles, President Exposition
Vocal Solo, - "Star Spangled Banner" - Mary Theresa Louthan
Oration - Hon. Robert G. Cousins
Quickstep, - "Uncle Remus", Barnard.  Iowa Agricultural
College Cadet Band.

Address, Governor Leslie M. Shaw.

Ladies and Gentlemen, Citizens and Friends of Iowa:

"Not many generations ago, in the place where you now sit, encircled by all
that exalts and embellishes civilized life, the rank thistle nodded in the
breeze, and the wild fox digged his hole unscared."  So said Charles Sprague
three-quarters of a century ago, and the utterance is as true when applied to
the land of the Omahas as to the land of the Wampanoags.

We meet this day as citizens of Iowa, on the soil of a sister state, for no
idle purpose.  The people of Iowa are not idlers, but the day will have been
lost to us and to our children, unless what is here said, and done, and
witnessed, and enjoyed shall bring greater thoughtfulness and increased
earnestness.  The half century and two years since the admission of Iowa added
the twenty-ninth star to the flag which has now become the protector of the
world have wrought great changes.  Most of the improvements of earth, most of
the progress in the arts and sciences, most of the advance in civilization,
have been wrought within the period of our State history.  Time would not
permit, if the inclination were present, to recount the achievements in the
political, industrial, financial, agricultural, mechanical, scientific,
educational, religious or moral world.  Suffice it to say that in all of these
Iowa has rendered her full share of service, and has reaped her full measure of
blessing.  We can well afford to leave to others the study of the past.  Let it
be ours manfully to face the future, now more than ever big with possibilities,
and with careful glance ahead improve the present.

In all the grand exhibit of this remarkable Exposition there is not found that
for which our State has greatest reason to rejoice.  The product of the farm,
of the orchard, of the garden, of the herd, of the dairy, of the factory, of
the mine are here in great quantity and of superb quality.  Truly Iowa is great
in territory, great in resources, great in product, but she is greatest of all
in her children.  There is presented to my eye from the platform that which is
infinitely more valuable than all herds and all harvests.  I see scattered
through this audience many of the youth of Iowa.  They are from the city, from
the town, from the hamlet, and from the Iowa farm.  They are representatives of
an aggregate of seven hundred thousand of school age, and of an equal number
who have just passed from educational tuition to face the activities, the
anxieties, and the achievements of manhood and womanhood.  These all belong to
a generation which will surely be heard from.  Their fathers and mothers have
been industrious, have been ambitious, have been hopeful, and have been
successful.  A generation thus circumstanced is always potential.  Dr. Strong
tells of a township in the western reserve which was settled with an energetic,
liberty-loving, God-fearing, educationally-inclined people, and which in a
limited period furnished many members of the State Legislature.  From that
community of only a few hundred inhabitants men went forth to college
professorships east and west, to the supreme bench of the State, and to the
United States Congress.  Northhampton, Mass., has among its native and resident
population over four hundred graduates form colleges and other educational
institutions; it has furnished the world with one hundred and fourteen
ministers, eighty-four ministers' wives, ten missionaries, twenty-five judges,
one hundred and two lawyers, ninety-five physicians, seven college presidents,
thirty professors, sixty-four other educators, twenty-four editors, six
historians, twenty-four authors, two governors, and thirty other State
officers, twenty-five members of the State General Court, as the Legislature is
styled, two generals, six colonels, thirteen other army officers, thirty-eight
officers of the United States, among them a Secretary of the Navy, two Foreign
Ministers, a Treasurer of the United States, five Senators of the United
States, eight Members of Congress and one President.  If a territory six miles
square, under favorable conditions can make such a record, what may we not
hopefully expect from a territory containing fifty-five thousand square miles,
all of it similarly peopled, and with conditions more favorable than
Massachusetts ever enjoyed or Ohio ever possessed.

"Know thyself", said the Greek philosopher.  "Know thine opportunity" has
become a companion and equally important maxim.

When you go home tonight tell the children that the world is big and constantly
expanding; that this day's experience has broadened your vision; that life has
become more real and hope more ardent; and that both you and the world, and
especially the States expect something of them.  Wake the boy in the night,
break in upon his dreams with stories of hopeful possibilities; watch the fire
kindle in his eye; let him dream again of greater things, of broader expanses,
of higher altitudes, of nobles achievements.  Neglect neigher seed time nor
harvest; match the growing and maturing crops; succor and protect both flocks
and herd; zealously guard the interests of the shop and the store and the
office; but above all, look well to the youth of Iowa, and to all things that
shall conserve the generation whose footsteps crowd the threshold of the
world's activities.


PRESIDENT WATTLE'S WELCOME.

When I received the invitation from the Iowa Commission to make an address on
this occasion, I at once realized my inability within the limited time at my
disposal to express in a fitting manner, even my own sentiments regarding a
state among whose inhabitants twenty-five years of my life had been spent, of a
state in whose public schools and colleges I received my education and to whose
magnificent advantages and opportunities I am indebted for whatever business
success I may have attained.  With apologies for apparent disloyalty to my
adopted state of Nebraska, I say without fear of successful contradiction that
Iowa is the best agricultural state in the Union.  There is a smaller
percentage of untillable land in this state than is found any other equal body
of land in the world.  The state has less illiteracy, more school houses and
churches and a less number of criminals in proportion to population than any
other state in the Union.  It has a better code of laws, a more industrious,
frugal and prosperous population; its wealth is more evenly distributed among
its inhabitants, its climate is more healthy and its people more contented and
happy than the average state of this country or in any other state or territory
of like extent in any other country in the world.

These may seem extravagant statements, but they are subject to verification by
facts and figures.  The question may be asked, why should this be true.  The
answer is plain and in perfect accord with the philosophy and history of all
past ages.  Agriculture is the source of all wealth, it breeds contentment,
virtue and happiness.  "From the farms comes not only the bread but the virtue
of this nation."  The principal avocation of the inhabitants of Iowa is
farming.  There are no large metropolitan cities to corrupt the morals and
excite the greed of its inhabitants, there are no mines of gold and silver to
attract and disappoint its people.  It is true that a large area of the state
is underlaid with rich deposits of coal, but beyond this its mineral wealth is
confined to small districts where lead and zinc are found.  The state lies
within that temperate belt of latitude along which the progress, intelligence,
wealth and energy of the world are most abundantly found.  Neither the long hot
summers of the southern climes nor the cold rigorous winters of the northern
states enervates its inhabitants.  The soil is rich and productive, cereals and
fruits mature alike in abundance.  All of the elements that produce happiness,
contentment and prosperity combine and conspire to make its inhabitants
intelligent, prosperous and contented.

But with all its natural advantages, a large majority of its inhabitants have
earned for themselves from its rich resources the competency they now enjoy. 
It is truly said "There is no excellence without labor," and but for the labor,
hardships and privations of the early settlers of this great commonwealth, I
doubt if they or their descendants would to-day occupy the high places in the
business world which they have attained.  The early pioneers were all poor and
but few of the later settlers had more than a few dollars with which to begin
life.  The privations of those who first entered the lands in the center of the
state purchased of the Black Hawk Indians were sufficient to develop the energy
and inspire that determined effort which always brings success.  In the fifties
when no railroad had penetrated the state when wheat was hauled two hundred
miles by wagon and sold at forty cents per bushel,when farm produce for want of
a market was worthless, when the fear of the Indian massacre and the ever
present dread of sickness and want on the frontier far away from medical or
neighborly aid, their trials were supreme.  Surrounded with perplexities and
almost over-come by obstacles which to the present generation would seem
insurmountable, with no roads and no bridges, in this solitude and loneliness
and amid the awful stillness which pervades a new land like this, these
pioneers learned lessons of frugality, economy and self reliance which insured
for them and their descendants success and prosperity, and an appreciation of
the comforts and conveniences which came later with advanced civilization. 
Later immigrants who came into the state with such a flood during the '60's
immediately after the great Rebellion suffered privations little less severe
than those endured by the earlier pioneers.

As a boy whose earlier years had been spent in populous communities, I well
remember the solitude of those prairies extending as far as the eye could reach
with no sign of life with their billows of grass rolling like the great waves
of the sea.  I can picture in memory the illumination of the heavens in autumn
when great prairie fires swept with terrible conflagration the broad expanse of
unoccupied lands and lighted the skies with firery tongues which seemed to
portend destruction of the settlements they surround.  In many instances in
these early days these prairie fires swept with terrible velocity through
fields of ripening corn and laid waste the crops and buildings and sometimes
consumed the entire possessions of the hapless settler who was exposed to their
grand and destructive holocaust.  I can well remember when these prairies were
thought to be worthless, when the only settlements were along the wooded steams
and when it was said that man could not live through the rigorous storms that
blew with such velocity with nothing to break their force, across these plains
in winter, and when the first man ventured out from the shelter of the woods to
make his home on the open prairie he was thought to be insane.  How glad the
hearts of those settlers to hear the first screech of the locomotive, and the
sound of the approach of the first railway train.  Each additional evidence of
civilization was appreciated beyond the power of the imagination of those who
have never known want of the present advantages at our doors.

It was this school in these early days which reared within the state of Iowa a
self reliant, industrious and frugal population, which has given caste to all
subsequent settlement.  These early settlers and their descendants own their
homes to-day and are surrounded by many of the comforts and conveniences of
life.  They are happy in the comparison of their changed conditions.  They have
won for themselves by the individual efforts the reward which follows honest
toil.  I have known hundreds, yes, thousands of the present prosperous heads of
families in Iowa who came to the state in poverty, and who today are free from
debt and own their rich, well stocked and productive farms.  Who can wonder
that such a population surrounded as they are with all the conveniences of
civilization should be intelligent, prosperous and happy.

Ever ready to promote the interests of their state by advertising its
resources, Iowa was the first through her legislature to approve of this
Exposition, and the first state in the Union to make an appropriation for a
state exhibit here.  She stands among the first in the beauty and convenience
of their building and the variety and extent of her exhibit.  It is with pride
and pleasure that I welcome her citizens here today.  This Exposition is the
crowning achievement of the people of the west, it marks an epoch in the
history of their progress, it serves notice to all the world that the west is
no longer lacking in population, wealth and enterprise, and it reveals a vision
of future development which will eclipse its phenomenal past.

When we consider the wonderful strides that have been made in all of the states
and territories west of the Mississippi River during the short space of half a
century, when we compute the wealth that has been accumulated, when we realize
that 80,000 miles of railroad have been constructed, great cities built and a
commerce double that of Spain and Portugal established, when we know and
realize that in no other part of the world such opportunities for the investor
and home seeker are offered as can be found within this territory, we can
picture in our imagination its future greatness and power.  When I think of the
wonderful changes that have been wrought within the state of Iowa within the
past thirty years, how the Red Men have been driven from their grounds to make
room for the rich farms and cities which now support a population of more than
2,000,000 people, of how schools and colleges have been built, public
institutions for the promotion of education, morality, Christianity and good
government established, and how out of the chaos and the stillness of the
wilderness such a commonwealth has grown within the memory of even the young
men of this generation.  I almost believe it must be the dawn of the millennium
when happiness, prosperity and contentment such as the world has never known is
to permeate the lives of all men.  When I stand and view the magnificence and
wealth of the west displayed at this Exposition, I almost feel like the rural
farmer, who on entering these grounds a short time ago exclaimed, "If heaven is
only as beautiful, I shall be satisfied."

To all the beauties of these grounds and the pleasures to be found in viewing
the wonderful resources displayed in these buildings, I invite the visitors
from Iowa to participate.  This Exposition is yours as well as ours, you are
equal partners in the enterprise, and from its success, now happily insured,
you may learn many lessons of value for the future.  It not only illustrates
the wealth and progress of a great people, but it points to future
possibilities undreamed of before.  To the homeless millions of less favored
climes it is a messenger of promise, to the weary mariner whose fortunes have
been wrecked on the seas of adversity it is a harbinger of hope, it opens new
fields to the investor, inspires the ambition of the genius, incites the
emulation of states and stands the crowning glory in the history of the west.


ADDRESS OF ROBERT C. COUSINS, M.C. AT OMAHA.

The State of Iowa accepts with fraternal gladness the hospitable hand of
greeting extended by Nebraska and our other sister States in this great empire
of the pioneers and salutes with reverent patriotism the deferral government of
the United States.

In the words of that original and poetic genius, "Ironquill," who has voiced so
well the thought and feelings of our westland, and who has made the name of
Kansas known forever in the world of letters:

States are not great
Except as man may make them.
Men are not great except they do and dare.

All merit comes from braving the unequal.
All glory comes from daring to begin.

I have asked five of the ablest and most noted Americans what they regard as
the chief thing or leading feature of the Trans-Mississippi region and they
have invariably answered, "Its men and women."  The other day I met one of the
oldest settlers of eastern Iowa - one of those original, rugged characters
whose wit and wisdom has lightened the settlers' hearts and homes for many a
toilsome year - one of those interesting characters who never bores you and
whom one always likes to meet - a man whose head is silvered and whose
countenance is kind - and I asked him what he regarded as the principal feature
of our Trans-Mississippi country, and he replied: "Well, I'm no scholar, but
I've been round here nigh onto sixty years and I recon 'bout the most important
thing is the folks and the farms."

While you rest here a little while in this splendid auditorium before going to
view the wonders and the beauties of the Exposition (and incidentally the
Midway) I shall speak briefly of the folks and farms of my native state of Iowa
and of this empire of the pioneers.  In doing so, I have some hesitation,
realizing as I do that there are doubtless those in this vast audience who were
contemporaries with my grandfathers in the early settlement of Iowa away back
in the thirties, and who are far better qualified to tell the tale of toil and
triumph which is the glory and the honor of our birthland.  In such a
discussion, I feel as though I was standing on the bank of a magnificent stream
in the hearing of patriarchs and pilgrims who have traveled from its source.  I
can look at its swift flowing current and think of the scenes by which it has
swept in its lonely way form the wilds where it started; I can remember with
you the roaming red man who watched with jealous eye the coming of this
Anglo-Saxon stream of civilization; I can marvel with you at the vastness of
the products of its soil, watered with the tears of happiness and toil; I can
realize with you the ruggedness and patience of its manhood and the strength
and gentleness of its womanhood, but of its landscape farther up, its
tributaries and its cabins, its haunts and huts and wonders, its
picturesqueness of primeval life, the story is far better told by him whose
tired feet have trudged along the way, whose hands have toiled and whose hair
has turned to gray.

Iowa became a separate territory, with the capitol at Burlington, in 1838, and
was admitted into the Union in 1846, and has been in it ever since.  It makes
little difference whether it was first settled by the whites at Dubuque for
mining purposes in 1788, or, for trading purposes, at Montrose, in 1799, or
opposite Prairie duChien, in 1804 or 5, in Lee county at Sandusky in 1820, or
on the lower rapids at what is known as Nashville, in 1829; or whether the
first settlements for general purposes were made at Burlington and Davenport in
1832.  The main facts is that it was well settled - not by dyspeptic tourists
or by invalids who had come west out of curiosity and New Jersey, nor by
climate seeking dilettante with two servants and one lung - but by the best
bone and sinew of the Middle States, New England and the Old World.  I do not
know that there were any dukes or lords or marquises or duchesses, but there
were Dutch and Irish and Scotch and Scotch-Irish and English and Americans and
they had home rule right from the start - at least they had in the first school
which I attended.  The men and women who settled the Hawkeye State were not
those who expected to go back "in the fall", or as soon as they could prove up
their claims.  They were stayers.  They were not men to be discouraged by
winter or by work.  They were men who knew that nobody ever amounted to much
unless he had to.  Most of them began simply with the capital of honesty, good
health and their inherent qualities of character.  They built their cabins in
the clearings and watching the smoke curl up in the great wide sky, felt just
as patriotic for their humble rustic homes as e'er did princes for their
castles or millionaires for mansions grand.

To build a home is a great thing.  It doesn't matter so much about the
dimensions.  "Kings have lived in cottages and pygmies dwelt in palaces," but
the walls of a home always add something to inherent character.  In the
formation of character there are always two elements the inherent and the
adventitious - that which we bring with us into the world and that which our
surroundings give us.  Somebody said "There is only a small portion of the
earth that produces splendid people."  Our pioneers got into a good place. 
They had left doubt sitting on a boulder in the east and packed their things
and started for the west.  Rivers had to be forded, trees to be felled; cabins
had to be built - the rifle must be kept loaded - so much the better, there was
self-reliance.  Corn and coffee had to be ground, and on the same mill - so
much the better, there was ingenuity.  Teeth had to be filled, and there was no
painless dentistry.  Disease and injury must be dealt with, and the doctor
fifty miles away.  Life must be lightened, lonely hearts must be cheered, and
the old friends and comrades far back in the states or may be away in the
Fatherland, and the cheering letter tarrying with the belated stagecoach hold
fast, thou sturdy denizen and gentle helpmate of the rich and wonderous empire,
infinite goodness guards thee and the fertile fields are ready to reward.

Ah, pampered people of the later generations, when you imagine modern
hardships, think of the courage and the trials and the ingenuity of pioneers
when there were no conveniences but the forest and the axe, the wide rolling
prairie and the ox team, the great blue sky, the unsolved future and the annual
ague.  Complain of markets in these modern times and then think of your
grandmother when she was a blooming bride, listening through the toilsome days
and anxious nights for the wagon bringing home the husband from a distant
market with calico and jeans purchased with dressed pork sold a dollar and a
half a hundred, and maybe bringing home a little money, worth far less per yard
than either calico or jeans.  Maybe it was all for the best, human character
was being formed for the development of a great and loyal and progressive State
to shine forever among the stars of the Federal Union.

Probably the purest time in the history of government and of man is when they
are painfully intent upon the labor of their development and defense.  Most all
greatness and nearly every original idea has come out of some kind of trouble. 
Whoever gets to greatness or success without meeting opposition, goes in an air
castle.  Most of the flowers of genius have bloomed from bleeding hearts. 
There never was a strong and handsome face without some little line of care. 
And so every circumstance of those early, toilsome lives, every tedious trail,
every tear, every home whose roof kept out the storm and whose walls contained
their sorrows and their joys; all the gifts of a generous soil in return for
careful cultivation; every irritating inconvenience which finally drove some
questioned mind to ponder out improvements, all such experiences are as certain
in their formation and development of character and mind as are inherent
qualities that accompany the origin and mystery of life.

Somewhere I have seen an etching of a face that was called Experience, and I
have never forgotten it - one never does forget a face that has ideas in it. 
This one was the illustrated history of a life.  There was Youth with all its
hope, marked here and there with all the lines of strife and care and victory
which middle life had placed upon it.  And there was the mystic touch of later
years, like autumn's pencil work in nature, all shaded with the mellow haze of
time - a kind of soft and silvery veil with which deft nature covers up her
glory - a picture penciled by an artist with an understanding mind, who knew
his subject had thought as he had thought, felt as he had felt, dreamed as he
had dreamed - a kind of picture that one sees so very very seldom, only as
often as one finds genius - the divine - and I thought there is the typical
picture of a pioneer and well named "Experience."

Civil government in Iowa proceeded with its rapid settlement.  The pioneer
became a model citizen.  He knew the necessity for the laws that were enacted. 
He did not feel oppressed by government.  He had experienced the losses of
robbery and larceny and knew something of the embarrassment and inconvenience
of being scalped.  There was no hysteria about trusts and combines because they
had practiced combinations themselves for mutual protection.  If any one would
learn the true genius and exemplification and philosophy of self-government,
government of and for and by the people, let him study the records of pioneer
life, and institutional beginnings and the evolution of their laws.  It would
be worth our while on some suitable occasion when time permitted to talk over
the interesting incidents attending the administration of justice in the early
days of Iowa, and incidents of its territorial legislatures, the birth and
growth of its Statehood and the characters of its officials.  But the greatness
of our State is not contained in any name.  Its official history is the
exponent of its industrial life and character.  Its greatness is the sum total
of its citizenship.  In order to be just, John Jones, the average citizen, must
be mentioned along with our most illustrious officials.  Somebody said that the
history of a nation is the history of its great men, but there is an unwritten
history which that averment overlooks.  The growth of a State is the progress
of its average citizen.  The credit of a commonwealth is the thrift of its John
Jones and William Smith, and the character, prosperity and patriotism of the
individual citizen is the history of Iowa.

The population of 97,000 which she had when admitted into the Union had
increased to 754,699 at the close of the Civil war.  Of these about 70,000,
almost one-tenth of the population, were in the war - a number equal to nearly
one-half the voters of the State.  Who made the history of Iowa during that
great struggle of our nation's life?  John Jones, the average citizen, whether
he carried a musket helping to put the scattered stars of State back into the
constellation of the Union,or whether he toiled from early dawn to lingering
twilight in the fields or in the shop.  The best civilization is that which
maintains the highest standard of life for its average citizen.  

Since the Civil war the State of Iowa has increased in population to almost
2,225,000 of people, and most of the time had the least illiteracy of any State
in the Union.  Doubtless for that we are in debted to many of the older States,
whose enterprising and courageous citizens constitute so large a portion of our
population.  With but half a century of statehood and with an area of but
55,475 square miles, the State of Iowa produces the greatest quantity of
cereals of any State in the Union.  As long ago as the last federal census,
taken in 1890, it produced more corn, more oats, more beef, more pork than any
State in the Union.  Not long since I was introduced to a gentleman from New
York City.  he said:  "Oh, from Iowa - ah - let me see, that's out - ah - you
see, I'm not very well posted on the geography of the West."  "Yes," I said,
"it's out there just across the Mississippi river.  You can leave New York
about noon and get your supper in Iowa the next evening.  It might be worth
your while to look it up.  It's the State which produces more of the things
which people eat than any other State in the Union.  It has more miles of
railroad than your State of New York, more than Mexico, more than Brazil and
more than all the New England States combined."

The value of Iowa's agricultural products and live stock in round numbers for
the year 1892 was $407,000,000, to say nothing of her other great and various
industries and enterprises.  She produced that year 160,000,000 lbs. of the
best butter on earth of the value of $32,000,000.  The Hawkeye butter ladle has
achieved a cunning that challenges all Columbia.  The Iowa cow has slowly and
painfully yet gradually and grandly worked her way upward to a shining eminence
in the eyes of the world.  The State of Iowa has on her soil today, if nothing
ill befalls it, ninety million dollars' worth of corn.  The permanent value of
land is estimated by its corn-producing qualities.  Of all the products of the
earth, corn is king and it reigns in Iowa.  

Industry and nature have made the State of Iowa a creditor.  Her soil has
always been solvent and her system of farming does not tend to pauperize it. 
She is a constant seller, and therefore wants the evidence of the transaction
to be unimpeachable.  She has more school teachers than any other State except
the Empire State and only three and six- tenths per cent of her population are
illiterate.  The State of Iowa has yielded the grandest dividends on her
educational investments. She has become illustrious on account of her
enlightenment.  She has progressed further from "primitive indifferent tissue"
than the land even of Darwin himself, and in her escape from protoplasm and
prejudice she is practically out of danger.  Marked out in the beginning by the
hand of God, bounded on the east and west by the two great rivers of the
continent, purified and stimulated by the snows of winter, blessed with copious
rainfall in the growing season, with generous soil and stately forests
interspersed, no wonder that the dusky aborigines exclaimed when they crossed
the Father of Waters, "Iowa; this is the place."  Not only did the red man give
our State its beautiful and poetic name, but Indian nomenclature runs like a
romance throughout the counties and communities.  What infinite meaning, what
tokens of joy and sadness, of triumph and of tears, of valor and of
vanquishment, of life and love and song there may be in these weird, strange
words that name today so many of our towns and streams and counties; Allamakee,
Chickasaw, Dakota City, Sioux, Pocahontas, Winneshiek, Keosauqua, Sac,
Winnebago, Tama, Nodawa, Compeine, Chariton, Commanche, Cherokee, Waukon,
Muchakinock, Washta, Monona, Waupeton, Onawa, Keota, Waudina, Ioka, Ottumwa,
Oneska, Waucoma, Nishnabotna, Keokuk, Decorah, Wapello, Muscatine, Maquoketa,
Mahaska, Ocheyedan, Mississippi, Appanoose, Missouri, Quasqueton, Anamosa,
Poweshiek, Pottawattamie, Osceola, Oskaloosa, Wapsipinicon.

Ere long some westland genius,moved by the mystic inspiration of the rich and
wondrous heritage of Iowa nativity, may sing the song of our legends and
traditions, may voice in verse the wondrous story of his illustrious State. 
Maybe some where among the humble homes where blood and bone and brain grow
pure and strong; where simple food with frugal ways feeds wondering minds and
drives them craving into nature's secrets and her songs - somewhere along the
settler's pathway or by the Indian trail where now the country churchyards
grown with uncut grasses hide the forms of sturdy ancestors sleeping all in
peaceful ignorance of wayward sons or wondrous progeny - somewhere where rising
sun beholds the peasantry at early toil and leaves them in the mystic twilight
ere their tasks are done, where odors of the corn and new mown hay and
vine-clad hedges by the shadowy roadside linger long into the night-time, as a
sweet and sacred balm for tired hearts - somewhere sometime the song of Iowa
shall rise and live, and it will not omit the thought of that gifted son who
said:  "Iowa, the affections of her people, like the rivers of her borders,
flow to an inseparable union."

And now, my fellow citizens, a word about out great Trans-Mississippi region,
the empire of the pioneers and of our country and its future.

We have on this side of the Mississippi river an area of 2,143,155 square miles
of land, two and a quarter times the area east of the Mississippi.  You could
put England, Ireland, Scotland, the German Empire, France, Austria, Hungary,
Italy, Spain and all of the United States east of the Mississippi into this
Trans-Mississippi territory without touching California or Hawaii, and Admiral
Dewey would still have the Pacific Ocean and Manila, with rope enough to lasso
and hang the last enemy of the United States and civilization.

The population east of the Mississippi in 1890 was 45,979,754 having increased
eighteen per cent in the ten preceding years.  The population west of the
Mississippi in 1890 was 16,642,496, an increase of ninety-three per cent in the
preceding  decade.  The wealth per capita east of the Mississippi increased
twenty-two and three quarters per cent from 1880 to 1890 and increased
sixty-nine and one-half per cent west of the Mississippi in the same decade.

The State of Minnesota alone produces nearly one-eighth of the flour of the
United States and Texas furnishes one-fifth of the cotton, Iowa, Kansas,
Nebraska and Missouri produce nearly half of the entire corn product of the
country, over one-fourth of the beef and more than one-third of the pork.  No
other territory in the world of equal area produces so much of the substantial
food of life.

Being a perpetual creditor, on account of its vast productions, the western
region and all its States have a common interest in the largest possible
employment of people in other avocations than producing food, because
employment not only creates appetite, but likewise the financial ability to
satisfy it.  The western region and its many States also have a common interest
in honesty.  Having given their labor for a large increase in wealth per capita
- the largest of any section of the country they are naturally interested in
maintaining it.  No one has a greater interest in the vested value of a dollar
that he who has exchanged his labor and his products for it, or who has a
constant surplus to be sold and registers as accumulated wealth.  You labor
today and accumulate thereby.  You may want to rest tomorrow.  Your
accumulation should be secure.  You have been selling all these years.  You may
wish to buy or build tomorrow.  The credit registered by your toil, frugality
and prudence should be forever sacred.  The West should look to the future and
think not only of its gains in one decade, but of the balance that will be to
its credit in a hundred years from now.  Do not forget that the world must eat
and that mankind is multiplying by the millions, and that the Creator is not
making any more land on this planet.  Hold fast to the heritage which God and
the pioneers have left you and to the standard of integrity and value by which
it was earned.  Let the future buy from you according to that same standard by
which you have bought and by which your toil is measured in the present.

No one can foretell a limit of the possibilities of this great, producing,
half-developed region for the future, with the United States forging to the
front in the commerce of the world, claiming its harbors and its coaling
stations along the lines of trade in the uttermost parts of the earth and
realizing more than ever before that it is a joint proprietor with the older
nations of the earth in the great high seas.  Doubtless some people are
overreckless for expansion and some are so conservative that their intellectual
estates seem almost in probate.  Douglas Jerrold used to say, "There are some
people so conservative that they can never appreciate the new moon out of
regard for that venerable institution, the old one," and Wendell Phillips
added, "Some people are afraid to sweep off the cobwebs for fear the roof will
come down."  But there is one thing reasonably certain:  America will have a
place to land and coal her ships in every quarter of the globe.  There has been
the age of marble and the age of bronze; ours if the age of commerce and of
iron.  Commerce will not stop, it undermines the mountains, lays its cables
underneath the billows of the sea and scorns the fury of its crests.  Commerce
is a greedy, moiling, tireless spider catching all the world in a web of iron,
and it will weave its wires wherever there is life.  It has found the orient
and the occident and will never rest until it ties its cables to the poles.

America will build a greater navy and will build the Nicaraqua canal and her
merchant ships will take her commerce into all the harbors of the world and our
battleships shall protect our commerce in its legitimate and rightful course. 
The American flag shall be visible and revered away from home as it is beloved
and venerated here, and under it a free people shall thrive and multiply in
peace.

If one were to write a prophetic history of the next century and insist upon it
with any degree of obstinancy, he would doubtless be deemed insane.  If
Washington, when he retired from public life, had uttered one-half the truth of
events that have since transpired, even Americans would have said that the
pressure of official responsibility had rendered the Father of his Country a
victim of dementia, and the world would have doubtless pronounced him crazy. 
If some optimist of New England had said a hundred years ago, as has transpired
and been declared since, then, that in the nineteenth century science would
pierce through mountains that ancient poetry could never scale, whisper across
the ocean, tame the lightning, annihilate space, explode superstition, create
light, bottle up sound, he might have been arrested for witchcraft.  If at the
time when a hundred and eighty crimes were punishable with death, some judge or
jurist had recognized the sunrise of civilization and has declared that the
time would soon come when the greatest nation of the earth would inflict the
death penalty for only two offenses, he might have been deposed for his
opinion.  If any one were to remind you now of one-half that is gone and
foretell one-half the century to come he would be regarded as a dangerous man
and rickety, and it would be used against him in the next campaign, no matter
on what ticket he should run.  The fact is that not many realize the rate at
which the world is traveling.  Time is so noiseless that it awakens very few. 
The Rip Van Winkles are as numerous as the Smiths and Browns and Joneses. 
While we are yet shaking hands with the events of yesterday genius taps us on
the shoulder and introduces a stranger and we exclaim, "What impostor is this?" 
An impossibility, an event of the future.

What shall be the events of the coming century?  Probably with whatever degree
of certainty we are able to comprehend the past and to understand the present,
with that degree can we foretell the future.  Yesterday and today are the
premises of a syllogism whose conclusion is tomorrow.  I believe there is a
good reason for everything that happens in the universe.  The indications are
that the great events of the near future shall be in the line of commerce, as I
have already indicated, of jurisprudence, of social economy, of science and of
art.  The tendency of the times is to get rid of long-established humbugs.  The
wisdom of the past shall be retained, but the wings of progress shall not
burdened by its evils and stupidity.  So long as toil shall bend the back of
man his brain shall question science for its mysteries and so long as mystery
remains to form the boundary line of knowledge the scientists will strive and
climb and climb and reach beyond those bounds.  They will make the electric
current turn the wheels of all the world.

And in our coming century there will be tumults, strife and riot, but there
shall be no ruin.  America shall be ruled by law.  She will not forget the
lessons that her patriots have taught.  She will abide by the pilgrim covenant
- the legally expressed will of the majority.

And in the future, striving and contending with all its ceaseless, tireless
energies, in that stately and majestic march of time and toil there will be
success and failure, thrift and slothfulness, charity and meanness, hope and
doubt, happiness and misery.  And some time it will lift up its voice and
America shall hear great music - such as she has never known before - and there
shall be great artists.  Some one has said that America is too busy to make
verses, too serious to sing songs; that all her ideas are marshal'ed up in
battle array to solve the vital questions of self-government and that all her
jewels are wrought into diadems to crown the kings of commerce and the lords of
science, whilst poetry is swept away by the tide of activity that swells
through every artery and vein of Columbia's land.  And all that has been very
true.  But it shall not always be so.  We shall not always take our melodies
from old operas nor our designs from ancient frescoes.  We shall not always dig
our architecture from the ruins of the past nor get our fiction from the brains
of dead men.  The same conditions that bred the genius of dead empires shall
find the muses and the artists for Columbia and a greater glory shall await
them, for they shall all be born in freedom.

By and by some millionaire, tired of killing pigs and packing pork, will see
something beautiful or maybe something sad, and he will endow an institution
where poverty can come and dream and mark its pain and thought upon the canvas
and the marble.  And then some other hoarder of the millions shall grow weary
cornering kerosene and corn, and he will hear some voice or see some fair young
face with just a little line of care upon its arched and thoughtful brow, and
he will add his charity to the goodness and the greatness of America and he
will say to genius, "Come, these walls shall keep the winds form shriveling up
your tender wings on which you now may rise and soar and out of all your misery
that is past make harmonies that will soften all the sorrows of mankind, revive
the melodies that have been dying through all the centuries of time with the
pain of silence and out of the inspiration that may come to you write
rhapsodies that will lift and glorify the thoughts and minds of men and find
the very throne of God."  Emerson declared a little while before he died:  "We
think our civilization near its meridian, but we are kept only at tom cock
crowing and the morning star."  The future will verify Emerson.  The greatest
alliance ever projected in history will be the alliance of American efforts and
American interests.  Into the opening gateway of the twentieth century, hand in
hand, shall spring our king of commerce and the queen of industry, the
Sphinx-eyed scientist and his bride of art, the sturdy son of agriculture and
the dreaming child of song, and their thought and toil and song shall honor and
inspire the human ace and make our country great - essentially, exquisitely,
magnificently great.
___________________________

The formal exercises were concluded by a dress parade on the plaza by the Cadet
Battalion of the Iowa Agricultural College, and a reception at the Iowa State
Building.







 
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