The Congressional legislation (x) which authorized the Trans-Mississippi
Exposition as international and provided for the Government's participation
therein, was laid before the United States Senate by Hon. William V. Allen of
Nebraska, on January 3, 1896, and before the House of Representatives by Hon.
David H. Mercer, also of Nebraska, on February 17.  After considerable
discussion the amended bill passed both Houses and on June 10, 1896, was
approved by President Cleveland.  The following is the text thereof:

(Public--No. 199.)

An Act To authorize and encourage the holding of a transmississippi and
international exposition at the city of Omaha, in the State of Nebraska, in the
year eighteen hundred and ninety-eight.

Whereas it is desirable to encourage the holding of a Transmississippi and
International Exposition at the city of Omaha, in the State of Nebraska, in the
year eighteen hundred and ninety-eight, for the exhibition of the resources of
the United States of America and the progress and civilization of the Western
Hemisphere, and for a display of the arts, industries, manufactures, and
products of the soil, mine, and sea; and

Whereas it is desirable that an exhibition shall be made of the great staples
of the trans-mississippi region which contributes so largely to domestic and
international commerce; and

Whereas encouragement should be given to an exhibit of the arts, industries,
manufactures, and products, illustrative of the progress and development of
that and other sections of the country; and


(x)  A memoranda of Congressional Acts, Bills, Resolutions, Reports, etc.,
relating to the Exposition accompanies this Report.

Whereas such exhibition should be national as well as international in its
character, in which the people of this country, of Mexico, the Central and
South American Governments, and other States of the world should participate,
and should, therefore, have the sanction of the Congress of the United States;

Whereas it is desirable and will be highly beneficial to bring together at such
an exposition, to be held at a central position in the western part of the
United States, the people of the United States and other States of this
continent; and

Whereas the Transmississippi and International Exposition Association has
undertaken to hold such expositions, beginning on the first day of June,
eighteen hundred and ninety-eight, and closing on the first day of November,
eighteen hundred and ninety-eight, Therefore,

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States
of America in Congress assembled That a transmississippi and international
exposition shall be held at the city of Omaha, in the State of Nebraska, in the
year eighteen hundred and ninety-eight, under the auspices of the
Transmississippi and International Exposition Association:  Provided, That the
United States shall not be liable for any of the Expense attending or incident
to such exposition, nor by reason of the same.

Sec. 2.  That all articles which shall be imported from foreign countries for
the sole purpose of exhibition at said exposition upon which there shall be a
tariff or custom duty shall be admitted free of payment of duty, customs free,
or charges, under such regulation as the Secretary of the Treasury shall
prescribe; but it shall be lawful at any time during the exhibition to sell for
delivery at the close thereof any goods of property imported for and actually
on exhibition in the exhibition building, or on the grounds, subject to such
regulation for the security of the revenue and for the collection of import
duties as the Secretary of the Treasury shall prescribe:  Provided, That all
such articles when sold or withdrawn for consumption in the United States shall
be subject to the duty, if any, imposed upon such articles by the revenue laws
in force at the date of importation, and all penalties prescribed by law shall
be applied and enforced against the persons who may be guilty of any illegal
sale or withdrawal.

Sec. 3.  That there shall be exhibited at said exposition by the Government of
the United States, from its Executive Departments, the Smithsonian Institution,
the United States Fish Commission, and the National Museum, such articles and
material as illustrate the function and administrative faculty of the
Government in time of peace, and its resources as a war power, tending to
demonstrate the nature of our institutions and their adaptions to the wants of
the people; and to secure a complete and harmonious arrangement of such
Government exhibit a board shall be created, to be charged with the selection,
preparation, arrangement, safe keeping, and exhibition of such articles and
materials as the heads of the several Departments and the Directors of the
Smithsonian Institution and National Museum may respectively decide shall be
embraced in said Government exhibit.  The President may also designate
additional articles for exhibition.  Such board shall be composed of one person
to be named by the head of each Executive Department and Museum and by the
President of the United States.  The president shall name the chairmen of said
board, and the board itself shall select such other officers as it may deem

Sec. 4.  That the Secretary of the Treasury shall cause a suitable building or
buildings to be erected on the site selected for the transmississippi and
international exposition for the Government exhibits, and he is hereby
authorized and directed to contract therefore, in the same manner and under the
same regulations as for other public buildings of the United States; but the
contract for said building or buildings shall not exceed the sum of fifty
thousand dollars.  The Secretary of the Treasury is authorized and required to
dispose of such building or buildings, or the materials composing the same, at
the close of the exposition, giving preference to the city of Omaha, or to the
said Transmississippi and International Exposition Association, to purchase the
same at an appraised value to be ascertained in such manner as may be
determined by the Secretary of the Treasury.

Sec. 5. (#)  The United States shall not be liable on account of said
exposition for any expense incident to, or growing out of same, except for the
construction of the building or buildings hereinbefore provided for, and for
the purpose of paying the expense of transportation, care and custody of
exhibits by the Government, and the maintenance of the said building or
buildings, and the safe return of articles belonging to the said Government
exhibit, and other contingent expenses to be approved by the Secretary of the
Treasury upon itemized accounts and vouchers, and the total cost of said
building or buildings shall not exceed the sum of fifty thousand dollars, nor
shall the expenses of said Government exhibit for each and every purpose
connected therewith, including the transportation of same to Omaha and from
Omaha to Washington, exceed the sum of one hundred and fifty thousand dollars,
amounting in all to not exceeding the sum of two hundred thousand dollars. 
Provided, That no liability against the Government shall be incurred, and no
expenditure of money under this Act shall be made, until the officers of said
exposition shall have furnished the Secretary of the Treasury proofs to his
satisfaction that there has been obtained by said exposition corporation
subscriptions of stock in good faith, contributions, donations, or
appropriations from all sources for the purposes of said exposition a sum
aggregating not less than two hundred and fifty thousand dollars.


(#)  By subsequent legislation, the appropriation carried in this Act was made
available for the purpose of selection, purchase, preparation and installation
of Government exhibits, in addition to those purposes set forth in Section 5.

Sec. 6.  That the commission appointed under this Act shall not be entitled to
any compensation for their services out of the Treasury of the United States,
except their actual expenses for transportation and a reasonable sum to be
fixed by the Secretary of the Treasury for subsistence for each day they are
necessarily absent from home on the business of said commission.  The officers
of said commission shall receive such compensation as may be fixed by said
commission, subject to the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury, which
shall be paid out of the sums appropriated by Congress in aid of such

Sec. 7.  That medals, with appropriate devices, emblems, and inscriptions
commemorative of said Transmississippi and International Exposition and of the
awards to be made to the exhibitors thereat, shall be prepared at some mint of
the United States, for the board of directors thereof, subject to the
provisions of the fifty-second section of the coinage Act of eighteen hundred
and ninety-three, upon the payment of a sum not less than the cost thereof; and
all provisions, whether penal or otherwise, of said coinage Act against the
counterfeiting or imitating of coins of the United States, shall apply to the
medals struck and issued under this Act.

Sec. 8.  That the United States shall not in any manner, nor under any
circumstances, be liable for any of the acts, doings, proceedings, or
representations of said Transmississippi and International Exposition
Association, its officers, agents, servants, or employees, or any of them, or
for service, salaries, labor, or wages of said officers, agents, servants, or
employees, or any of them or for any subscriptions to the capital stock, or for
any certificates of stock, bonds, mortgages, or obligation of any kind issued
by said corporation, or for any debts, liabilities, or expenses of any kind
whatever attending such corporation or accruing by reason of the same.

That nothing of this Act shall be so construed as to create any liability of
the United States, direct or indirect, for any debt or obligation incurred, nor
for any claim for aid or pecuniary assistance from Congress or the Treasury of
the United States in support or liquidation of any debts or obligations created
by said commission in excess of appropriation may by Congress therefor.

Organization of board of Management.  

By virtue of the Act quoted, the heads of the several Executive Departments,
the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, and the Commissioner of Fish and
Fisheries, detailed the following named gentlemen to act as Representatives of
their respective branches of the Government:

Department of State,          William H. Michael,
Chief Clerk;

Treasury Department,          Charles E. Kemper
Chief Executive Officer,
Supervising Architect's Office;

War Department,               Major Henry C. Ward, U.S.A.

Department of Justice,        Frank Strong,
General Agent;

Post Office Department,       John B. Brownlow;

Navy Department,              Lieutenant, C.M. McCormick, U.S.N.;

Navy Department, (Con         Lieutenant-Commander J.D. Adams, 
U.S.N.; (#)
Lieutenant-Commander L.C. Logan,
U.S.N., (#)
Lieutenant-Commander E. Marshall
Stedman, U.S.N.; (#)

Department of Interior        Frank W. Clark, Chief Chemist
Geological Survey;

Department of Agriculture     Joseph H. Brigham,
Assistant Secretary;

Smithsonian Institution and   Frederick W. True,
National Museum,              Executive Curator,
National Museum;

Commission of Fish and        William de C? Ravenel,
Fisheries,                    Assistant in charge of
Fish Culture.

Joseph H. Brigham, Assistant Secretary of Agriculture, and Representative of
the Department of Agriculture, was designated by President McKinley to act as
Chairman of the Board.

At a meeting of the Board held November 20, 1897, W.V. Cox, Chief Clerk of the
United States National Museum, who had been previously designated as Chief
Special Agent of the Smithsonian Institution and National Museum for the
Exposition, was elected Secretary.  At the same meeting S.L. Lupton was elected
Disbursing Officer, but on December 8, following, the Board rescinded this
action, in accordance with the opinion of the Secretary of the Treasury that
the Disbursing Clerk of the Treasury Department would be able to handle the
Exposition funds until it should become necessary to have such an officer
stationed at Omaha.  On April 25, 1898, Mr. Lupton being no longer an applicant
for the office, William M. Geddes, of Nebraska, was elected Disbursing Officer
of the Board, his services beginning May 1, Following.


(#) These gentlemen were appointed to succeed to the vacancies caused by the
assignment of their predecessors to other duty.

At the first meeting of the Board, held at the Chairman's office, October 16,
1897, the following named members were elected to constitute an Executive

J.H. Brigham, Chairman Ex-Officio.
W. de C. Ravenal,
W.H. Michael,
C.E. Kemper,
F.W. Clarke.

The following standing committee were also selected:

By-Laws and Regulations:

C.E. Kemper, Chairman,
C.M. McCormick,
F.W. Clarke.

Committee on Allotment of Funds and Space.

W.M. Michael, Chairman,
F.W. True,
W. de C. Ravenal.

Committee on Installation and Decoration:

F.W. Clarke, Chairman,
C.E. Kemper,
J.B. Brownlow.

The following By-Laws were adopted by the Board:

Section 1.  Officers.

The officers of the Board shall be a Chairman, a Secretary, a Disbursing
Officer, and an Executive Committee of five members.  The Secretary, the
Disbursing Officer, and four members of the Executive Committee shall be
elected by the Board.

Section 2.  Duties of Chairman.

The Chairman shall preside at the meetings of the Board and shall approve all
vouchers.  In the event of his absence from a meeting, the Board may elect a
temporary presiding officer.  The Chairman shall also certify to all
appointments of employees, such certification to be transmitted to the
Secretary of the Treasury as evidence that the appointments have been properly

Section 3.  Duties of Secretary.

The Secretary shall keep the records of the meetings of the Board, and conduct
its correspondence under the direction of the Chairman.  He shall perform such
other duties as may be assigned to him by the Board.

Section 4.  Duties of Disbursing Officer.

The Disbursing Officer shall pay all vouchers for expenses incurred by the
Board of Management, provided that such vouchers shall have been properly
certified and approved he shall render monthly statements to each
Representative as to the condition of his allotment.  In no case shall he pay
vouchers in excess of an allotment.

Section 5.  Duties of the Executive Committee.

The Chairman of the Board shall be Chairman of the Executive Committee, and any
vacancies thereon shall be filled by election.  The Committee shall act upon
matters of urgent business in the intervals between the meetings of the Board,
and their action shall be binding upon the Board until its next meeting, and
until then only, unless at that meeting approved and sanctioned.

Section 6.  Meetings.

Meetings shall be held at least once a month, upon the call of the Chairman,
unless otherwise ordered by the Board.  It shall be the duty of the Chairman to
call a special meeting upon the request, in writing, of three members of the

Section 7.  Employees.

Janitors and other employees of the Board of like grade whose compensation is
to be paid from the common fund, shall be appointed by the Chairman, but the
number of such employees, and the salaries paid to each shall be fixed by the
Board itself.

Apportionment of Funds.

The total appropriation originally made by Congress was $200,000 of which
$50,000(#) was to be devoted to the erection of a suitable building.  The
portion of the appropriations available for preparation, transportation and
installation of exhibits was, on November 19, 1897, allotted by the Board to
the several Departments, but a re-allotment was necessitated by reason of a
joint resolution of Congress approved by President McKinley on December 18,
1897, as follows:

(Public Resolution--No. 2.)

Joint Resolution Extending limit of cost of the Government building or
buildings at the Transmississippi and International Exposition at Omaha,
Nebraska, and reducing cost of Government Exhibit.

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of
America in Congress assembled, That the Secretary of the Treasury be, and he is
hereby, authorized and directed to cause to be constructed and completed, at an
additional cost not to exceed ten thousand dollars, the Government building at
the Transmississippi and International Exposition at Omaha, Nebraska, as shown
and called for by the plans, drawings and specifications on which bids were
taken for its erection, and so forth:  and that the Secretary of the Treasury
be, and he is hereby, further authorized and directed to cause to be erected at
said Exposition a building for an exhibit of the United States Life-Saving
Service, at a cost not to exceed for said building the sum of two thousand five
hundred dollars; and to enable the Secretary of the Treasury to give effect to,
and execute the provisions of, this Act, the limit of cost of the Government
buildings authorized to be erected at said Exposition is hereby extended from
fifty thousand dollars to sixty-two thousand five hundred dollars; and the cost
of the Government exhibit at said Exposition is hereby reduced from one hundred
fifty thousand dollars to one hundred thirty-seven thousand five hundred

In conformity to this legislation a pro rate reduction of 8 1/3 per cent on the
former allotment of funds was made as shown in the following table:

Department     Original            Less 8 1/3%         Final
Apportionment       Per cent            Apportionment

State,        $ 4,500             $  375.00           $ 4,125.00

Treasury,      17,000              1,416.67            15,583.33

War,           11,000                916.67            10,083.33

Navy,          13,000              1,083.33            11,916.67

Post Office,    8,000                666.66             7,333.34

Interior,      18,000              1,500.00            16,500.00

Justice,        3,000                250.00             2,750.00

Agriculture,   15,000              1,250.00            13,750.00

Sm. Inst. and
Natl. Mus.,    20,500              1,708.33            18.791.67

Com. of Fish &
Fisheries,     20,000              1,666.67            18,333.33

Common Funds,  20,000              1,666.67            18,333.33

$150,000            $12,500.00          $137,500.00


The Common Fund reserved in the above allotment was set aside to meet general
expenses, including salaries of officer clerks, guards, inspectors and
cleaners, stationery, etc., together with other incidental expenses not
properly chargeable to any one Department.

A re-apportionment of funds was accomplished on September 12, 1898; and on
February 25, 1899, the Board adopted the following resolution, consolidating
the balances of the several allotments into the Common Fund, in order to
facilitate the closing up of the affairs of the Board:

"Resolved, That all unexpended funds of the Board are hereby consolidated into
the Common Fund, and that the Chairman is authorized to allot to the
Representatives such funds as are shown to be necessary to enable their
respective Departments to close up all work in connection with the Exposition,
each account to be approved by the Representative of the Department incurring
the liability, the same to be charged against that Department."

The Government Building.

The Government building was situated at the West end of the Exposition grounds,
at the head of the lagoon, and had the seat of honor of the Exposition, facing,
as it did, the main group of buildings.

It was designed under the general direction of Charles E. Kemper, Acting
Supervising Architect of the Treasury Department, and, later, constructed under
the direction of J.K. Taylor, Supervising Architect.  It was designed in the
classic style, the Ionic order being used.

The main entrance, facing  the center of the lagoon, was reached by a broad
flight of steps, while direct connection was had on each side of the lagoon
with the other buildings of the group by a covered colonnade.

The building was surmounted by a colossal gilded dome, which was in turn capped
by a heroic figure representing "Liberty Enlightening the World."  The torch
was 178 feet above the ground.  This dome and figure, when illuminated at
night, was a landmark for miles around.

The contract for erecting the structure was let to George Moore and Sons, of
Nashville, Tennessee, who constructed the Government building at the Tennessee
Centennial Exposition of 1897.

Interior Arrangement of Building.

The Government building was so admirably arranged as to make its interior space
completely available for exhibition purposes.  Reference to the accompanying
floor plan will aid in understanding the arrangement.

The total available space, including the 742 square feet at the West end of the
transept in the projecting portico, and partly occupied by the working  post
office, was about 46,000 square feet (#), the main floor space being
approximately 450 by 100 feet.  Of this space 36,325 square feet was allotted
for the exhibits of the several departments, (#2) the balance being devoted to
the aisles.  The main area was divided equally by an aisle 14 feet wide,
terminating at the North and South Entrances. 

(#) Including guard, public comfort and storage rooms.
From the main, or Eastern entrance, the transverse aisle, also 14 feet wide,
extended inward about 27 feet and terminated in a ring-like aisle beneath the
dome and of the same width.  From each side of this circular aisle extended a 5
foot aisle, leading to the toilet rooms and the working post office at the West
side of the building.  Two other short aisles, 12 feet wide each, led from the
doors at either extremity of the Eastern colonnade to the central aisle, a
distance of about 40 feet.  In the projecting Eastern portico, the guard room
was located South and the photographer's room North of the main entrance, while
the several offices immediately above these rooms were reached by stairs
leading from the north side of the portico.

Interior Decorations.

On the recommendation of the Committee on Decorations, the interior walls were
covered to the height of 12 feet with maroon-colored burlap, and above that
height with gray, and a red strip at the top to serve as a frieze; the
roof-supporting columns were boxed and covered to match the walls, except the
twelve central columns which were boxed octagonally and covered with maroon to
the height of 7 feet, and above that painted gray.

The partitions separating the exhibits of the different Departments were 12
feet in height and were covered with maroon colored burlap with a black
base-board and cornice.  The roof and clerestory trusses and windows were
draped with festoons of cheese cloth in colors of maroon and old gold,
interspersed with United States flags and pennants.  The dome was entirely
decorated with the National colors, while draped flags ornamented the columns
and the cornices.  The effect of these decorations was most pleasing.

Illuminating the Government Building.

As the Government building was not open to the public in the evenings, it was
not lighted interiorly except in the offices, guard room, aquarium, etc., and
for the convenience of policing, for which purpose four arc lamps were provided
in the main aisles.

In order to allow of the expenditure from the building fund of such an amount
as would be necessary to wire the Government building for exterior
illumination, the Exposition Company urged upon Congress the passage of a Joint
Resolution which was introduced in the House of Representatives on March 30,
1898, by Hon. David H. Mercer, and was passed by both Houses and approved by
the President on May 19, as follows:


"Authorizing the Secretary of the Treasury to rent lighting apparatus for
Government building at Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition.

"Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of
America in Congress assembled, That the Secretary of the Treasury be, and he is
hereby, authorized to rent electric wiring and lamps for the lighting of the
exterior of the building for the Government exhibit at the Trans-Mississippi
and International Exposition at Omaha, Nebraska, if, in his judgment, such
course will be less expensive than to wire the building and furnish lamps
therefor; the expense thereof to be paid from the unexpended balance of the
appropriation for the construction of said building."

Under authority contained in this resolution, an arrangement was made by the
Secretary of the Treasury with the exposition Bureau of Light and Power, for
the installation, constant inspection and supervision, and maintenance during
the entire Exposition period, of a system of exterior electric lighting,
comprehending a total of eight hundred 16-candle power incandescent lamps, it
being understood that the material supplied was not to become the property of
the Government, but when no longer required by it for Exposition purposes,
would be removed by the Bureau of Light and Power as its property.  The total
cost to the Government for this system was $720.

The Exposition Company desiring to augment the illumination of the exhibition
buildings on July Fourth, it was granted permission to place incandescent lamps
upon the dome of the Government building, the same being mounted on rubber
belting, vertically arranged, suspended from the top in order that no damage
would be done to the gilded covering of the dome by nails or screws.  While
these lamps were originally intended only for the evening of July Fourth, the
effect of the illuminated dome was so satisfactory and admired that at the
request of the Exposition authorities this extra illumination was allowed to
remain throughout the balance of the Exposition period.

The Government having provided the system of exterior illumination and the
Board feeling that the appropriation could not bear the high cost of supplying
electric current for the same, the Exposition Company was required to provide
such current free of charge, since the result to be obtained was more in the
nature of a feature of the Exposition than a feature of the Government exhibit.

The following statement shows the number of incandescent and arc lamps
installed on the exterior and in the interior of the Government building:

Incandescents         Arcs.

Main Exterior,                     800                --

Exterior, dome,                    200                --

Main Interior,                     ---                 4

Exhibit spaces, offices, etc..      91                 6

Totals  1,091                10

Allotment of Space.

Upon the recommendation of the Committee on Allotment of Funds and Space, the
several Departments were assigned floor space in the Government Building, but
the joint resolution of Congress approved December 18, 1897, (previously
quoted), by transferring from the appropriation for the Government building the
sum of $12,500, (of which $2,500 was to be expended for the construction of a
Life-Saving Station), necessitated a re-apportionment of space as well as
funds.  To provide for a retrenchment of funds and an increase of space seemed
an odd dilemma, but the Board accomplished it, making the final allotment of

Square feet.

Department of State,                              1,288

Treasury Department                               3,828

Rotunda Space                                       388

War Department,                                   4,586

Navy Department,                                  3,886

Post Office Department,                           3,402

Working Post Office Space,                          305

Department of the Interior,                       4,067

Department of Agriculture,                        4,716

Department of Justice,                              700

Smithsonian Institution and National Museum,      4,067

Commission of Fish and Fisheries,                 5,142

Total exhibit space, exclusive of main aisles,   36,325 sq. ft.

Care of Building.

The Custodianship of the Government Building was committed by the Secretary of
Treasury to W.V. Cox, Secretary of the Board of Management.  Mr. Cox acted in
this capacity from May 1 to December 5, when, on his return to Washington, he
was succeeded by J.J. Hittinger, Assistant to the Representative of the War
Department.  The care of the Government building during the Exposition period
was assigned to the following force:  A Superintendent of Exhibits, a Head
Janitor, five cleaners, two toilet-room attendants, and sixteen guards.

Guard Force.

The members of the Government Guard were appointed by the Chairman of the
Board, and the force was organized and maintained under "Rules and Regulations"
(#) in part as follows:

Rule 1.  The Government Guard of the Trans-Mississippi and International
Exposition shall consist of not less than sixteen men, duly appointed by the
Chairman of the Board of Management of the United States Government Exhibit.
Rule 2.  Members of the Guard must be:

(a) Reputable citizens of the United States, and betwen 21 and 35 years of age.

(b)  Men who have served with credit either in the U. S. Regular Army, U. S.
Navy, State or Territorial Militia, Chicago, Atlanta or Nashville Exposition
Guard, or who have been trained in a military school.

(c)  Of physical health and vigor, and not less than 5 feet, 8 inches in

(d)  Of unquestionable energy, sobriety, and courteous manners.

Rule 3.  The Guard will be organized in three Reliefs as follows:

First:  8 o'clock A.M. to 4 o'clock P.M.

Second:  4 o'clock P.M. to 12 o'clock midnight.

Third:  12 o'clock Midnight to 8 o'clock A.M.

Rule 4.  Each relief will be composed of a Sergeant and, when possible, not
less than four men, who shall remain on duty eight hours and until regularly
relieved.  The Guard will be under the immediate control of the Sergeant, who
shall act under the instructions of the Secretary of the Board, or in his
absence, someone designated by him.

Rule 5.  The Sergeant of each Relief will be held responsible for the safe
keeping of all property under his care, and his orders must be obeyed by all
guards.  He will make the rounds of the Building at least each hour, and be
reponsible for the enforcement of these rules.

Rule 6.  After the Building is closed in the afternoon and until the hour of
re-opening, the guards are forbidden under penalty of dismissal to allow
admission to any persons other than those whose names appear on the posted pass
list or who are provided with properly certified pass signed by the Secretary
or by a Representative on the Board of Management.  This also applies on
Sundays, and no exceptions can be made to friends of the guards.  A list of the
officers and members of the Board of Mangement, and the employees of the
Building, giving their name and place of residence will be placed on the
bulletin board in the Guard room and will be corrected from day to day.  


At night each guard on duty was provided with an Army revolver, the same having
been loaned to the Board by the War Department, at the solicitation of Major
H.C. Ward, U. S. A., Representative of that Department.

The Guard Room, located in the South Portico at the Eastern entrance to the
Government Building, was provided with lockers, one being assigned to each
Sergeant of the Guard, and each of the remaining ones to two guards.

An arrangement was made with the Exposition authorities for the guards to enter
after closing hours and remain in the grounds at night.  This privilege was
also secured for those officers and employees responsible for the protection of
the exhibits and the building.

Protection Against Fire.

The building was amply protected against fire by nine hydrants, to each of
which fifty feet of hose was attached.  One hydrant was located at each end of
the main aisle, one beside each of the three Eastern entrances, one at the door
of each toilet room, and two others on the West wall midway between the
transcept aisles and the ends of the building.  By this arrangement, no part of
the floor was inaccessible to the hose.  Two additional hydrants, with one
hundred feet of hose each, were later located upon the roof.

Storage of Packing Boxes.

All empty packing boxes and crates were stored in the basement of the
Government building, thereby saving both time and expense.  To prevent, as far
as possible, the occurence of fire among these empties, no excelsior or other
packing material was allowed to be stored, and a rigid inspection was made
daily of the entire basement

Passes into Exposition Grounds.

No charge was made by the Exposition management, for the admission of persons
connected with the Government exhibit, and the usual deposit of three dollars
for the photographic pass was waived by request in the case of the Government
employees, the Department of Admissions of the Exposition promptly furnishing
pass cards and photographic passes on the application of the Secretary of the

The total number of passes into the Exposition grounds issued upon request of
the Secretary of the Board of Government officials and employees was 462, of
which 90 were for the period of installation, 236 for the Exposition period,
and the remainder, 136 for the period of re-packing.

Passes into the Government Building.

With a view to enabling those visitors who could attend the Exposition only on
Sundays, and at night, to see the Government exhibit, pass cards were prepared
and distributed by the members of the Board, on application, for such hours
when the building was closed to the public as would not interfere with any work
going on within the building.  On some occasions (such as the President's
reception), special pass cards were prepared.

The Government building was open to visitors every week-day from 9 o'clock A.M.
to 6 o'clock P.M. during the period from June 1 to September 1, from which date
to October 31, it was closed at 5 o'clock P.M.

Detail of Government Employees.

For the period of the Exposition, the number of actual details from all
branches of the Government service was approximately one hundred.

In addition to their regular salaries, officials and employees of the
Government detailed to the Exposition were re-imbursed for their actual
traveling and subsistence expenses.

Freight Transportation.

The Missouri Pacific Railway Company extended its tracks to points near both
the North and South entrances of the Government Building, where platforms were
constructed for unloading and re-loading the exhibits.

Owing to the fact that all shipments into Omaha had to be made over land-grant
and bond-aided railroads, shipping of Government exhibits was done through the
quartermaster offices of the War Department, on regular Army bills of lading;
and the settlement of all freight charges had to follow the course adopted by
the War and Treasury Department.

During the period when shipments were being made to the Exposition, the Board
employed W.C. Crawley as a clerk to prepare bills of lading and to keep a
record of same, he being assigned to the office of the Depot Quartermaster at
the War Department, Washington.

Statement of Freight (exhibits, etc.,) Shipped to the Exposition through
Quartermaster's Department of the Army:

From Washington:
Carloads(#)    Weight. lbs.

Department of State,                         1         12,000
Treasury Department,                         3 x       30,520
War Department,                              0 x        7,367
Department of Justice,                       1 x       13,000
Post Office Department,                      3         44,000
Navy Department,                             4         64,211
Department of the Interior,                  3 x       51,445
Department of Agriculture                    3         40,351
Smithsonian Institution and Nationa Museum   6 x       88,042
Commission of Fish and Fisheries,            2         26,361
Totals   26 x      377,697

From points other than Washington:

Carloads(#)   Weight lbs.

Treasury Department,                         9 x      173,948
War Department,                             11 x      263,125
Navy Department,                             1 x       22,366
Department of the Interior,                  1 x       12,839
Carloads(#)   Weight lbs.

Department of Agriculture,                   2         13,800        
Smithsonian Institution and National Museum  0 x        5,820
Commission of Fish and Fisheries,            2         38,000
Board of Management,                         0 x        5,034
Totals,  26 x      534,932


(#)  The signs "X" indicate fractions of carloads.

Completion of Government Exhibit.

The Installation of the Government exhibit was fully completed before the
opening of the Exposition, and on the afternoon of May 31, those members of the
Board in Omaha at the time informally received the officials of the Exposition
who inspected the building and exhibits.

Visit and Reception of President McKinley.

The most distinguished of all visitors, the President of the United States,
William McKinley, with a notable retinue of civil and military persons, all
conspicuous in the successful conduct of the war with Spain just closed, was
formally received by the Exposition officials during Peace Jubilee Week, on
Wednesday afternoon, October 12, The President, with his  guests, accompanied
by the President of the Exposition and the Chairman of the Government Board,
entered the Government Building at the North entrance and visited successively
the exhibit of each Department, being received by the respective

Later, at about 3 o'clock, the President witnessed from the East porch of the
building the drill of the Life-Saving Service upon the lagoon immediately in
front, after which, re-entering the building he gave an informal reception to
the public in the rotunda.  Seats were provided for the Presidential party in
the space of the Department of State and in the Rotunda, while other guests
were seated in adjacent aisles.  The presentations to the President were made
by the Chairman of the Board, assisted by the President of the Exposition.  An
orchestra, seated in the Smithsonian Institution space, furnished appropriate
music for the occasion.

During the reception, the main aisle was roped off and all doors closed except
the North and South, entrance by the former and exit by the latter.

Order was maintained by the Government Guard and Exposition guards assisted by
the United States infantrymen, marines, and signal corps men, lately returned
from the war with Spain, numbering in all about two hundred, the infantrymen
being under the command of Major W.M. Van Horne, Twenty-second Regiment.


The Exposition management organized a Jury of Awards upon which a number of
Government experts who were on duty at the Exposition served at the request of
the management.

The Government not being a competitive exhibitor, the management decided to
express their appreciation of it contributions by granting the following
commemorative awards:

To Departments and Bureaus participating, "for interesting and instructive
exhibits," Commemorative Bronze Medal and Diploma each:

(2)       Department of State, and
Bureau of American Republics,

Supervising Architect's Office,
Bureau of Engraving and Printing,
Life-Saving Service,
Bureau of the Mint,
Light-House Establishment,
Marine-Hospital Service,
Coast and Geodetic Survey.

(7)       WAR DEPARTMENT, and
Adjutant General's Office,
Quartermaster's Department,
Medical Department,
Engineer's Department,
Ordinance Department,
Signal Corps.

(1)       Department of Justice

Dead-Letter Office,
Division of Mail Equipment,
Postage Stamp Division,
Transportation Division,
Postal Records Division,

(4)       NAVY DEPARTMENT, and
Bureau of Ordnance,
Bureau of Equipment,
Bureau of Construction and Repairs,

General Land Office,
Patent Office,
Bureau of Indian Affairs,
Bureau of Indian Affairs, for Indian Congress,
Bureau of Education,
Geological Survey,
Weather Bureau,
Bureau of Animal Industry,
Division of Chemistry,
Division of Entomology,
Division of Forestry,
Division of Botany,
Division of Pomology,
Office of Public-Road Inquiries,
Office of Fibre Investigations,

Department of Anthropology,
Department of Biology,
Department of Geology,
Bureau of American Ethnology,
Bureau of International Exchanges,
National Zoological Park,
Astrophysical Observatory,

(5)       Commission of Fish and Fisheries, and
Division of Scientific Inquiry,
Division of Fish Culture,
Division of Fisherievs Statistics,
Live Fish Display,

To Goverment Officials and Employees "for valuable services rendered" in
planning, preparing or installing exhibits, Commemorative Bronze Medal and
Diploma each:


William H. Michael, Representative,
J.M. Riddle, Chief Special Agent,
Frederic Emory, Director, Bureau of American Republics.


Lyman J. Gage, Secretary of the Treasury,
C.E. Kemper, Representative,
James K. Taylor, Supervising Architect,
Edward A. Crane, Supervising Architect's Office,
Sumner I. Kimball, General Superintendent, Life-Saving Service,
Lieut. C.H. McClellan, Life-Saving Service,
H.M. Knowles, Life-Saving Service,
Dr. J.J. Knowles, Life-Saving Service,
A.W. Downing, Bureau of the Mint.

WAR DEPARTMENT           (4)

Russell A. Alger, Secretary of War,
George D. Meiklejohn, Assistant Secretary of War,
Major H.C. Ward, Representative,
Serg. J.J. Hittinger, Assistant,

William Griggs, Attorney General,
Frank Strong, Representative,
R.V. La Dow, Examiner,
Carrie Jenkins Harris, Custodian of Exhibits,


Charles Emory Smith, Postmaster General
J.B. Brownlow, Representative,
W.G. Brownlow, Assistant,
S.I. Slack, Curator, Postal Museum.

NAVY DEPARTMENT          (7)

John D. Long, Secretary of the Navy,
Lieut. C.M. McCormick, Representative,
Lieut.-Comdr. L.C. Logan,      "
Lieut.-Comdr. E.M. Stedman,    "
Capt. Charles O'Neil, Chief, Bureau of Ordinance,
Comdr. R.B. Bradford, Chief Bureau of Equipment and Repairs,
Philip Hichborn, Chief Constructor,


Cornelius N. Bliss, Secretary of the Interior,
F. W. Clarke, Representative,
C.D. Walcott, Director, Geological Survey,
William A. Jones, Commissioner of Indian Affairs,
J.C. Boykin, Bureau of Education,
Malcolm Seaton, Patent Office,
T.H. Mitchell,     "     "
T.A. Witherspoon,  "     "
Emily S. Cook, Bureau of Indian Affairs,
Alice C. Fletcher, "   "   "       "
F.P. Metzger, Chief Clerk, General Land Office,
J.K. Hillers, Geological Survey,
N.H. Darton, for relief Map of Nebraska,


James Wilson, Secretary of Agriculture,
J.H. Brigham, Representative,
Charles Richards Dodge, Chief Special Agent,
G.B. Brackett, Pomologist,
L.O. Howard, Entomologist,
A.M. Farrington, Bureau of Animal Industry,
C.F. Marvin, Weather Bureau,
W.N. Irwin, Division of Pomology,
G.L. Spencer, Division of Chemistry,
Geo. B. Sudworth, Division of Forestry,
Sylvester H. Dewey, Division of Botany,
B.H. Dorsett, Division of Physiology and Pathology.


S.P. Langley, Secretary,
Richard Rathburn, Assistant Secretary,
Frederick W. True, Representative,
William Van Zandt Cox, Chief Special Agent, and Secretary
of Government Board.

National Museum.

W.H. Holmes, Head Curator of Anthropology,
George P. Merrill, Head Curator of Geology,
J. Louis Willige, Acting Chief Clerk,
Leonard Stejneger, Curator of Reptiles and Batrachians,
National Museum (Continued)

Otis T. Mason, Curator of Ethnology,
J.E. Watkins,     "     " Technology,
E.A. Lucas,       "     " Anatomy,
Cyrus Adler, Division of Archaeology,
Charles Schuchert, Division of Paleontology,
Wirt Tassin, Division of Minerology,
W.H. Ashmead, Division of Insects,
J.E. Benedict, Division of Invertibrates,
C.C. Maynard, Division of Technology,
Walter Hough, Division of Ethnology,
Charles W. Richmond, Division of Birds,
Barton A. Bean, Division of Fishes,
W.H. Newhall, Division of Geology,
T.W. Sweeney, Division of Ethnology,
J.S. Goldsmith, Supervisor of Construction.

Bureau of Animal Ethnology:

W.J. McGee, Ethnologist, in charge,
James Mooney, Ethnologist,


George M. Bowers, Commissioner,
H.M. Smith, Assistant Commissioner,
W. de D. Ravenel, Representative,
G.A. Schneider, Assistant,
R.J. Conway, Assistant,
W.P. Sauerhoff, Assistant,
S.P. Bartlett, Station Superintendent,
Frank N. Clark,   "           "
E.A. Tulian,      "           "
H.D. Dean,        "           "
E.F. Locke,       "           "

The total number of awards, as above given, was 152, which number was
apportioned as follows;

For Interesting and      For Valuable
Instructive exhibits:    Services Rendered.

Department of State,                    2                       4
Treasury Department,                    8                       9
War Department,                         7                       4
Department of Justice,                  1                       4
Post Office Department,                 6                       4
Navy Department,                        4                       7
Department of the Interior,             7                      13
Department of Agriculture,             10                      12
Smithsonian Institute,
and National Museum                9                      25
Commission of Fish and Fisheries,       5                      11
59                      93

Pamphlets Distributed.

Four Departments prepared pamphlets which were distributed to the public viz:

"The Department of State of the United States.  How it was formed, what are its
duties, and how it is run."

Post Office Department:

"A Brief History of the Postal Service"

Navy Department:

"Ships and Weapons of the Navy."

Department of the Interior:

"Facts Relating to Education".

Cost of the Exhibit.

The total cost of the Government, exclusive of the construction of the
Government building, was, $137,771.37, divided as follows:

Exhibit of:

Department of State,---------------------------$ 4,025.61
Treasury Department,--------------------------- 16,036.49
War Department,--------------------------------  6,561.36
Department of Justice,-------------------------  2,127.27
Post Office Department,------------------------  9,186.54
Navy Department,-------------------------------  8,871.13
Department of the Interior,-------------------- 12,285.81
Department of Agriculture,--------------------- 10,059.56
Smithsonian Institution and National Museum,--- 21.583.31
Commission of Fish and Fisheries,-------------- 21,113.23
General expense of the Board, maintenance
of the building, pay of Guards, etc.,----- 25,921.06

Exposition Postal Service.

In addition to the Department exhibit, the Postmaster-General established a
branch working post office in the Government building for the transaction of
all kinds of post office business.  It was located in the transverse section at
the West side of the building, and J.I. Woodard, Assistant Postmaster at Omaha,
was in charge.

The following is a statement of the business transacted in the five months from
June to October inclusive:

Packages and letters registered,             477
Registered packages and letters received,    715
Stamp sales                                           $4,718.58
Money Orders issued,                        1600      28,111.58
Money Orders paid,                            59         814.45
Total volume of business    $33,644.61

A door opened at the Western end of the transcept into the post office, through
which all mail pouches were received and dispatched, and on Sundays, all
deliveries made.

Exhibitions of Life-Saving Service.

A building for housing the boats and equipment of the Life-Saving Service
exhibit was constructed near the West end of the lagoon, in the rear of the
South colonnade, and exhibitions were given daily, at 4 o'clock P.M., in front
of the Government building.  All the usual drill pertaining to the processes of
live-saving from a sinking vessel was given to the great delight of western
visitors, who as a rule, knew little of the service.

Lieutenant C.H. McLellan, of the Revenue Cutter Service, collected and prepared
the exhibit and arranged for the drills of the crew.  Just before the opening
of the Exposition he was called to active naval duty in connection with the war
with Spain, and did not return until during the last month of the Exposition,
then resuming charge of the exhibit.  In his absence the exhibit was in charge
of Captain H.M. Knowles, Assistant Superintendent of the third life-saving
district.  Captain Henry Cleary, of the Marquette (Mich.) life-saving station,
was in charge of the crew of eight surfmen.

The daily program was as follows:

1.  Life-savers go on patrol; discover signals of distress; line fired over

2.  Men saved in breeches-buoy; man overboard; rescue with life-boat.

3.  The capsize; apparently drowned; resuscitation.

It is not too much to say that the life-saving drill soon became one of the
most attractive features of the Exposition.


In the Indian Appropriation Act approved by President McKinley on July 1, 1898,
$40,000 was appropriated for the assembling of representatives of the various
tribes of Indians in an encampment on the Exposition grounds.  This encampment
was opened on August 4, and comprised over 500 Indians, representing
thirty-five distinct tribes.  The exhibition was known as the Indian Congress,
and was authorized by the Government as a part of the Exposition.  It was,
however, under the control of the Secretary of the Interior, and directed by
the Commission of Indian Affairs, being entirely separate from the Government
exhibits under the direction of the Board.

Co-operation of Exposition Officials.

The Board desires to acknowledge the hearty co-operation of all the Exposition
officials, and takes pleasure in mentioning the following named gentlemen who
on many occasions extended unusual courtesies:  Gurdon W. Wattles, John A.
Wakefield, Edward Rosewater, Freemen P. Kirkendall, A.C. Foster, William N.
Babcock, T.S. Clarkson, Edward E. Bruce, H.B. Hardt, J.M. Woolworth, J.E. Utt,
F.W. Taylor, A.H. Griffith, and E.W. Lee.

Efficient Assistants.

Recognition is here made of the efficent and attentive services rendered by
James L. Farmer, clerk to the Secretary; and by Robert L. Stone, detailed from
the National Museum in connection with the exhibit of the Smithsonian
Institution and National Museum, who co-operated in the work of the secretarys
office and assisted in the preparation of this report.

Chairman Board of Management.

Secretary Board of Management.

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