REPORT OF THE BOARD OF MANAGEMENT, UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT EXHIBIT, TRANS-MISSISSIPPI AND INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION, OMAHA, NEBRASKA, 1898. ______________________________________________________________________________ REPORT OF THE BOARD PROPER. (Abridged.) The Congressional legislation (x) which authorized the Trans-Mississippi Exposition as international and provided for the Government's participation therein, was laid before the United States Senate by Hon. William V. Allen of Nebraska, on January 3, 1896, and before the House of Representatives by Hon. David H. Mercer, also of Nebraska, on February 17. After considerable discussion the amended bill passed both Houses and on June 10, 1896, was approved by President Cleveland. The following is the text thereof: (Public--No. 199.) An Act To authorize and encourage the holding of a transmississippi and international exposition at the city of Omaha, in the State of Nebraska, in the year eighteen hundred and ninety-eight. Whereas it is desirable to encourage the holding of a Transmississippi and International Exposition at the city of Omaha, in the State of Nebraska, in the year eighteen hundred and ninety-eight, for the exhibition of the resources of the United States of America and the progress and civilization of the Western Hemisphere, and for a display of the arts, industries, manufactures, and products of the soil, mine, and sea; and Whereas it is desirable that an exhibition shall be made of the great staples of the trans-mississippi region which contributes so largely to domestic and international commerce; and Whereas encouragement should be given to an exhibit of the arts, industries, manufactures, and products, illustrative of the progress and development of that and other sections of the country; and ______________________________________________________________________________ (x) A memoranda of Congressional Acts, Bills, Resolutions, Reports, etc., relating to the Exposition accompanies this Report. Whereas such exhibition should be national as well as international in its character, in which the people of this country, of Mexico, the Central and South American Governments, and other States of the world should participate, and should, therefore, have the sanction of the Congress of the United States; and Whereas it is desirable and will be highly beneficial to bring together at such an exposition, to be held at a central position in the western part of the United States, the people of the United States and other States of this continent; and Whereas the Transmississippi and International Exposition Association has undertaken to hold such expositions, beginning on the first day of June, eighteen hundred and ninety-eight, and closing on the first day of November, eighteen hundred and ninety-eight, Therefore, Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled That a transmississippi and international exposition shall be held at the city of Omaha, in the State of Nebraska, in the year eighteen hundred and ninety-eight, under the auspices of the Transmississippi and International Exposition Association: Provided, That the United States shall not be liable for any of the Expense attending or incident to such exposition, nor by reason of the same. Sec. 2. That all articles which shall be imported from foreign countries for the sole purpose of exhibition at said exposition upon which there shall be a tariff or custom duty shall be admitted free of payment of duty, customs free, or charges, under such regulation as the Secretary of the Treasury shall prescribe; but it shall be lawful at any time during the exhibition to sell for delivery at the close thereof any goods of property imported for and actually on exhibition in the exhibition building, or on the grounds, subject to such regulation for the security of the revenue and for the collection of import duties as the Secretary of the Treasury shall prescribe: Provided, That all such articles when sold or withdrawn for consumption in the United States shall be subject to the duty, if any, imposed upon such articles by the revenue laws in force at the date of importation, and all penalties prescribed by law shall be applied and enforced against the persons who may be guilty of any illegal sale or withdrawal. Sec. 3. That there shall be exhibited at said exposition by the Government of the United States, from its Executive Departments, the Smithsonian Institution, the United States Fish Commission, and the National Museum, such articles and material as illustrate the function and administrative faculty of the Government in time of peace, and its resources as a war power, tending to demonstrate the nature of our institutions and their adaptions to the wants of the people; and to secure a complete and harmonious arrangement of such Government exhibit a board shall be created, to be charged with the selection, preparation, arrangement, safe keeping, and exhibition of such articles and materials as the heads of the several Departments and the Directors of the Smithsonian Institution and National Museum may respectively decide shall be embraced in said Government exhibit. The President may also designate additional articles for exhibition. Such board shall be composed of one person to be named by the head of each Executive Department and Museum and by the President of the United States. The president shall name the chairmen of said board, and the board itself shall select such other officers as it may deem necessary. Sec. 4. That the Secretary of the Treasury shall cause a suitable building or buildings to be erected on the site selected for the transmississippi and international exposition for the Government exhibits, and he is hereby authorized and directed to contract therefore, in the same manner and under the same regulations as for other public buildings of the United States; but the contract for said building or buildings shall not exceed the sum of fifty thousand dollars. The Secretary of the Treasury is authorized and required to dispose of such building or buildings, or the materials composing the same, at the close of the exposition, giving preference to the city of Omaha, or to the said Transmississippi and International Exposition Association, to purchase the same at an appraised value to be ascertained in such manner as may be determined by the Secretary of the Treasury. Sec. 5. (#) The United States shall not be liable on account of said exposition for any expense incident to, or growing out of same, except for the construction of the building or buildings hereinbefore provided for, and for the purpose of paying the expense of transportation, care and custody of exhibits by the Government, and the maintenance of the said building or buildings, and the safe return of articles belonging to the said Government exhibit, and other contingent expenses to be approved by the Secretary of the Treasury upon itemized accounts and vouchers, and the total cost of said building or buildings shall not exceed the sum of fifty thousand dollars, nor shall the expenses of said Government exhibit for each and every purpose connected therewith, including the transportation of same to Omaha and from Omaha to Washington, exceed the sum of one hundred and fifty thousand dollars, amounting in all to not exceeding the sum of two hundred thousand dollars. Provided, That no liability against the Government shall be incurred, and no expenditure of money under this Act shall be made, until the officers of said exposition shall have furnished the Secretary of the Treasury proofs to his satisfaction that there has been obtained by said exposition corporation subscriptions of stock in good faith, contributions, donations, or appropriations from all sources for the purposes of said exposition a sum aggregating not less than two hundred and fifty thousand dollars. ______________________________________________________________________________ (#) By subsequent legislation, the appropriation carried in this Act was made available for the purpose of selection, purchase, preparation and installation of Government exhibits, in addition to those purposes set forth in Section 5. Sec. 6. That the commission appointed under this Act shall not be entitled to any compensation for their services out of the Treasury of the United States, except their actual expenses for transportation and a reasonable sum to be fixed by the Secretary of the Treasury for subsistence for each day they are necessarily absent from home on the business of said commission. The officers of said commission shall receive such compensation as may be fixed by said commission, subject to the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury, which shall be paid out of the sums appropriated by Congress in aid of such exposition. Sec. 7. That medals, with appropriate devices, emblems, and inscriptions commemorative of said Transmississippi and International Exposition and of the awards to be made to the exhibitors thereat, shall be prepared at some mint of the United States, for the board of directors thereof, subject to the provisions of the fifty-second section of the coinage Act of eighteen hundred and ninety-three, upon the payment of a sum not less than the cost thereof; and all provisions, whether penal or otherwise, of said coinage Act against the counterfeiting or imitating of coins of the United States, shall apply to the medals struck and issued under this Act. Sec. 8. That the United States shall not in any manner, nor under any circumstances, be liable for any of the acts, doings, proceedings, or representations of said Transmississippi and International Exposition Association, its officers, agents, servants, or employees, or any of them, or for service, salaries, labor, or wages of said officers, agents, servants, or employees, or any of them or for any subscriptions to the capital stock, or for any certificates of stock, bonds, mortgages, or obligation of any kind issued by said corporation, or for any debts, liabilities, or expenses of any kind whatever attending such corporation or accruing by reason of the same. That nothing of this Act shall be so construed as to create any liability of the United States, direct or indirect, for any debt or obligation incurred, nor for any claim for aid or pecuniary assistance from Congress or the Treasury of the United States in support or liquidation of any debts or obligations created by said commission in excess of appropriation may by Congress therefor. Organization of board of Management. By virtue of the Act quoted, the heads of the several Executive Departments, the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, and the Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries, detailed the following named gentlemen to act as Representatives of their respective branches of the Government: Department of State, William H. Michael, Chief Clerk; Treasury Department, Charles E. Kemper Chief Executive Officer, Supervising Architect's Office; War Department, Major Henry C. Ward, U.S.A. Department of Justice, Frank Strong, General Agent; Post Office Department, John B. Brownlow; Navy Department, Lieutenant, C.M. McCormick, U.S.N.; Navy Department, (Con Lieutenant-Commander J.D. Adams, U.S.N.; (#) Lieutenant-Commander L.C. Logan, U.S.N., (#) Lieutenant-Commander E. Marshall Stedman, U.S.N.; (#) Department of Interior Frank W. Clark, Chief Chemist Geological Survey; Department of Agriculture Joseph H. Brigham, Assistant Secretary; Smithsonian Institution and Frederick W. True, National Museum, Executive Curator, National Museum; Commission of Fish and William de C? Ravenel, Fisheries, Assistant in charge of Fish Culture. Joseph H. Brigham, Assistant Secretary of Agriculture, and Representative of the Department of Agriculture, was designated by President McKinley to act as Chairman of the Board. At a meeting of the Board held November 20, 1897, W.V. Cox, Chief Clerk of the United States National Museum, who had been previously designated as Chief Special Agent of the Smithsonian Institution and National Museum for the Exposition, was elected Secretary. At the same meeting S.L. Lupton was elected Disbursing Officer, but on December 8, following, the Board rescinded this action, in accordance with the opinion of the Secretary of the Treasury that the Disbursing Clerk of the Treasury Department would be able to handle the Exposition funds until it should become necessary to have such an officer stationed at Omaha. On April 25, 1898, Mr. Lupton being no longer an applicant for the office, William M. Geddes, of Nebraska, was elected Disbursing Officer of the Board, his services beginning May 1, Following. ______________________________________________________________________________ (#) These gentlemen were appointed to succeed to the vacancies caused by the assignment of their predecessors to other duty. At the first meeting of the Board, held at the Chairman's office, October 16, 1897, the following named members were elected to constitute an Executive Committee: J.H. Brigham, Chairman Ex-Officio. W. de C. Ravenal, W.H. Michael, C.E. Kemper, F.W. Clarke. The following standing committee were also selected: By-Laws and Regulations: C.E. Kemper, Chairman, C.M. McCormick, F.W. Clarke. Committee on Allotment of Funds and Space. W.M. Michael, Chairman, F.W. True, W. de C. Ravenal. Committee on Installation and Decoration: F.W. Clarke, Chairman, C.E. Kemper, J.B. Brownlow. The following By-Laws were adopted by the Board: Section 1. Officers. The officers of the Board shall be a Chairman, a Secretary, a Disbursing Officer, and an Executive Committee of five members. The Secretary, the Disbursing Officer, and four members of the Executive Committee shall be elected by the Board. Section 2. Duties of Chairman. The Chairman shall preside at the meetings of the Board and shall approve all vouchers. In the event of his absence from a meeting, the Board may elect a temporary presiding officer. The Chairman shall also certify to all appointments of employees, such certification to be transmitted to the Secretary of the Treasury as evidence that the appointments have been properly made. Section 3. Duties of Secretary. The Secretary shall keep the records of the meetings of the Board, and conduct its correspondence under the direction of the Chairman. He shall perform such other duties as may be assigned to him by the Board. Section 4. Duties of Disbursing Officer. The Disbursing Officer shall pay all vouchers for expenses incurred by the Board of Management, provided that such vouchers shall have been properly certified and approved he shall render monthly statements to each Representative as to the condition of his allotment. In no case shall he pay vouchers in excess of an allotment. Section 5. Duties of the Executive Committee. The Chairman of the Board shall be Chairman of the Executive Committee, and any vacancies thereon shall be filled by election. The Committee shall act upon matters of urgent business in the intervals between the meetings of the Board, and their action shall be binding upon the Board until its next meeting, and until then only, unless at that meeting approved and sanctioned. Section 6. Meetings. Meetings shall be held at least once a month, upon the call of the Chairman, unless otherwise ordered by the Board. It shall be the duty of the Chairman to call a special meeting upon the request, in writing, of three members of the Board. Section 7. Employees. Janitors and other employees of the Board of like grade whose compensation is to be paid from the common fund, shall be appointed by the Chairman, but the number of such employees, and the salaries paid to each shall be fixed by the Board itself. Apportionment of Funds. The total appropriation originally made by Congress was $200,000 of which $50,000(#) was to be devoted to the erection of a suitable building. The portion of the appropriations available for preparation, transportation and installation of exhibits was, on November 19, 1897, allotted by the Board to the several Departments, but a re-allotment was necessitated by reason of a joint resolution of Congress approved by President McKinley on December 18, 1897, as follows: (Public Resolution--No. 2.) Joint Resolution Extending limit of cost of the Government building or buildings at the Transmississippi and International Exposition at Omaha, Nebraska, and reducing cost of Government Exhibit. Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the Secretary of the Treasury be, and he is hereby, authorized and directed to cause to be constructed and completed, at an additional cost not to exceed ten thousand dollars, the Government building at the Transmississippi and International Exposition at Omaha, Nebraska, as shown and called for by the plans, drawings and specifications on which bids were taken for its erection, and so forth: and that the Secretary of the Treasury be, and he is hereby, further authorized and directed to cause to be erected at said Exposition a building for an exhibit of the United States Life-Saving Service, at a cost not to exceed for said building the sum of two thousand five hundred dollars; and to enable the Secretary of the Treasury to give effect to, and execute the provisions of, this Act, the limit of cost of the Government buildings authorized to be erected at said Exposition is hereby extended from fifty thousand dollars to sixty-two thousand five hundred dollars; and the cost of the Government exhibit at said Exposition is hereby reduced from one hundred fifty thousand dollars to one hundred thirty-seven thousand five hundred dollars. In conformity to this legislation a pro rate reduction of 8 1/3 per cent on the former allotment of funds was made as shown in the following table: Department Original Less 8 1/3% Final Apportionment Per cent Apportionment _________________________________________________________________________ State, $ 4,500 $ 375.00 $ 4,125.00 Treasury, 17,000 1,416.67 15,583.33 War, 11,000 916.67 10,083.33 Navy, 13,000 1,083.33 11,916.67 Post Office, 8,000 666.66 7,333.34 Interior, 18,000 1,500.00 16,500.00 Justice, 3,000 250.00 2,750.00 Agriculture, 15,000 1,250.00 13,750.00 Sm. Inst. and Natl. Mus., 20,500 1,708.33 18.791.67 Com. of Fish & Fisheries, 20,000 1,666.67 18,333.33 Common Funds, 20,000 1,666.67 18,333.33 $150,000 $12,500.00 $137,500.00 ________________________________________________________________________ The Common Fund reserved in the above allotment was set aside to meet general expenses, including salaries of officer clerks, guards, inspectors and cleaners, stationery, etc., together with other incidental expenses not properly chargeable to any one Department. A re-apportionment of funds was accomplished on September 12, 1898; and on February 25, 1899, the Board adopted the following resolution, consolidating the balances of the several allotments into the Common Fund, in order to facilitate the closing up of the affairs of the Board: "Resolved, That all unexpended funds of the Board are hereby consolidated into the Common Fund, and that the Chairman is authorized to allot to the Representatives such funds as are shown to be necessary to enable their respective Departments to close up all work in connection with the Exposition, each account to be approved by the Representative of the Department incurring the liability, the same to be charged against that Department." The Government Building. The Government building was situated at the West end of the Exposition grounds, at the head of the lagoon, and had the seat of honor of the Exposition, facing, as it did, the main group of buildings. It was designed under the general direction of Charles E. Kemper, Acting Supervising Architect of the Treasury Department, and, later, constructed under the direction of J.K. Taylor, Supervising Architect. It was designed in the classic style, the Ionic order being used. The main entrance, facing the center of the lagoon, was reached by a broad flight of steps, while direct connection was had on each side of the lagoon with the other buildings of the group by a covered colonnade. The building was surmounted by a colossal gilded dome, which was in turn capped by a heroic figure representing "Liberty Enlightening the World." The torch was 178 feet above the ground. This dome and figure, when illuminated at night, was a landmark for miles around. The contract for erecting the structure was let to George Moore and Sons, of Nashville, Tennessee, who constructed the Government building at the Tennessee Centennial Exposition of 1897. Interior Arrangement of Building. The Government building was so admirably arranged as to make its interior space completely available for exhibition purposes. Reference to the accompanying floor plan will aid in understanding the arrangement. The total available space, including the 742 square feet at the West end of the transept in the projecting portico, and partly occupied by the working post office, was about 46,000 square feet (#), the main floor space being approximately 450 by 100 feet. Of this space 36,325 square feet was allotted for the exhibits of the several departments, (#2) the balance being devoted to the aisles. The main area was divided equally by an aisle 14 feet wide, terminating at the North and South Entrances. _________________________________________________________________________ (#) Including guard, public comfort and storage rooms. (#2) From the main, or Eastern entrance, the transverse aisle, also 14 feet wide, extended inward about 27 feet and terminated in a ring-like aisle beneath the dome and of the same width. From each side of this circular aisle extended a 5 foot aisle, leading to the toilet rooms and the working post office at the West side of the building. Two other short aisles, 12 feet wide each, led from the doors at either extremity of the Eastern colonnade to the central aisle, a distance of about 40 feet. In the projecting Eastern portico, the guard room was located South and the photographer's room North of the main entrance, while the several offices immediately above these rooms were reached by stairs leading from the north side of the portico. Interior Decorations. On the recommendation of the Committee on Decorations, the interior walls were covered to the height of 12 feet with maroon-colored burlap, and above that height with gray, and a red strip at the top to serve as a frieze; the roof-supporting columns were boxed and covered to match the walls, except the twelve central columns which were boxed octagonally and covered with maroon to the height of 7 feet, and above that painted gray. The partitions separating the exhibits of the different Departments were 12 feet in height and were covered with maroon colored burlap with a black base-board and cornice. The roof and clerestory trusses and windows were draped with festoons of cheese cloth in colors of maroon and old gold, interspersed with United States flags and pennants. The dome was entirely decorated with the National colors, while draped flags ornamented the columns and the cornices. The effect of these decorations was most pleasing. Illuminating the Government Building. As the Government building was not open to the public in the evenings, it was not lighted interiorly except in the offices, guard room, aquarium, etc., and for the convenience of policing, for which purpose four arc lamps were provided in the main aisles. In order to allow of the expenditure from the building fund of such an amount as would be necessary to wire the Government building for exterior illumination, the Exposition Company urged upon Congress the passage of a Joint Resolution which was introduced in the House of Representatives on March 30, 1898, by Hon. David H. Mercer, and was passed by both Houses and approved by the President on May 19, as follows: "JOINT RESOLUTION" "Authorizing the Secretary of the Treasury to rent lighting apparatus for Government building at Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition. "Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the Secretary of the Treasury be, and he is hereby, authorized to rent electric wiring and lamps for the lighting of the exterior of the building for the Government exhibit at the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition at Omaha, Nebraska, if, in his judgment, such course will be less expensive than to wire the building and furnish lamps therefor; the expense thereof to be paid from the unexpended balance of the appropriation for the construction of said building." Under authority contained in this resolution, an arrangement was made by the Secretary of the Treasury with the exposition Bureau of Light and Power, for the installation, constant inspection and supervision, and maintenance during the entire Exposition period, of a system of exterior electric lighting, comprehending a total of eight hundred 16-candle power incandescent lamps, it being understood that the material supplied was not to become the property of the Government, but when no longer required by it for Exposition purposes, would be removed by the Bureau of Light and Power as its property. The total cost to the Government for this system was $720. The Exposition Company desiring to augment the illumination of the exhibition buildings on July Fourth, it was granted permission to place incandescent lamps upon the dome of the Government building, the same being mounted on rubber belting, vertically arranged, suspended from the top in order that no damage would be done to the gilded covering of the dome by nails or screws. While these lamps were originally intended only for the evening of July Fourth, the effect of the illuminated dome was so satisfactory and admired that at the request of the Exposition authorities this extra illumination was allowed to remain throughout the balance of the Exposition period. The Government having provided the system of exterior illumination and the Board feeling that the appropriation could not bear the high cost of supplying electric current for the same, the Exposition Company was required to provide such current free of charge, since the result to be obtained was more in the nature of a feature of the Exposition than a feature of the Government exhibit. The following statement shows the number of incandescent and arc lamps installed on the exterior and in the interior of the Government building: Incandescents Arcs. Main Exterior, 800 -- Exterior, dome, 200 -- Main Interior, --- 4 Exhibit spaces, offices, etc.. 91 6 Totals 1,091 10 Allotment of Space. Upon the recommendation of the Committee on Allotment of Funds and Space, the several Departments were assigned floor space in the Government Building, but the joint resolution of Congress approved December 18, 1897, (previously quoted), by transferring from the appropriation for the Government building the sum of $12,500, (of which $2,500 was to be expended for the construction of a Life-Saving Station), necessitated a re-apportionment of space as well as funds. To provide for a retrenchment of funds and an increase of space seemed an odd dilemma, but the Board accomplished it, making the final allotment of space: Square feet. Department of State, 1,288 Treasury Department 3,828 Rotunda Space 388 War Department, 4,586 Navy Department, 3,886 Post Office Department, 3,402 Working Post Office Space, 305 Department of the Interior, 4,067 Department of Agriculture, 4,716 Department of Justice, 700 Smithsonian Institution and National Museum, 4,067 Commission of Fish and Fisheries, 5,142 Total exhibit space, exclusive of main aisles, 36,325 sq. ft. Care of Building. The Custodianship of the Government Building was committed by the Secretary of Treasury to W.V. Cox, Secretary of the Board of Management. Mr. Cox acted in this capacity from May 1 to December 5, when, on his return to Washington, he was succeeded by J.J. Hittinger, Assistant to the Representative of the War Department. The care of the Government building during the Exposition period was assigned to the following force: A Superintendent of Exhibits, a Head Janitor, five cleaners, two toilet-room attendants, and sixteen guards. Guard Force. The members of the Government Guard were appointed by the Chairman of the Board, and the force was organized and maintained under "Rules and Regulations" (#) in part as follows: Rule 1. The Government Guard of the Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition shall consist of not less than sixteen men, duly appointed by the Chairman of the Board of Management of the United States Government Exhibit. Rule 2. Members of the Guard must be: (a) Reputable citizens of the United States, and betwen 21 and 35 years of age. (b) Men who have served with credit either in the U. S. Regular Army, U. S. Navy, State or Territorial Militia, Chicago, Atlanta or Nashville Exposition Guard, or who have been trained in a military school. (c) Of physical health and vigor, and not less than 5 feet, 8 inches in height. (d) Of unquestionable energy, sobriety, and courteous manners. Rule 3. The Guard will be organized in three Reliefs as follows: First: 8 o'clock A.M. to 4 o'clock P.M. Second: 4 o'clock P.M. to 12 o'clock midnight. Third: 12 o'clock Midnight to 8 o'clock A.M. Rule 4. Each relief will be composed of a Sergeant and, when possible, not less than four men, who shall remain on duty eight hours and until regularly relieved. The Guard will be under the immediate control of the Sergeant, who shall act under the instructions of the Secretary of the Board, or in his absence, someone designated by him. Rule 5. The Sergeant of each Relief will be held responsible for the safe keeping of all property under his care, and his orders must be obeyed by all guards. He will make the rounds of the Building at least each hour, and be reponsible for the enforcement of these rules. Rule 6. After the Building is closed in the afternoon and until the hour of re-opening, the guards are forbidden under penalty of dismissal to allow admission to any persons other than those whose names appear on the posted pass list or who are provided with properly certified pass signed by the Secretary or by a Representative on the Board of Management. This also applies on Sundays, and no exceptions can be made to friends of the guards. A list of the officers and members of the Board of Mangement, and the employees of the Building, giving their name and place of residence will be placed on the bulletin board in the Guard room and will be corrected from day to day. xxxxxxxxx At night each guard on duty was provided with an Army revolver, the same having been loaned to the Board by the War Department, at the solicitation of Major H.C. Ward, U. S. A., Representative of that Department. The Guard Room, located in the South Portico at the Eastern entrance to the Government Building, was provided with lockers, one being assigned to each Sergeant of the Guard, and each of the remaining ones to two guards. An arrangement was made with the Exposition authorities for the guards to enter after closing hours and remain in the grounds at night. This privilege was also secured for those officers and employees responsible for the protection of the exhibits and the building. Protection Against Fire. The building was amply protected against fire by nine hydrants, to each of which fifty feet of hose was attached. One hydrant was located at each end of the main aisle, one beside each of the three Eastern entrances, one at the door of each toilet room, and two others on the West wall midway between the transcept aisles and the ends of the building. By this arrangement, no part of the floor was inaccessible to the hose. Two additional hydrants, with one hundred feet of hose each, were later located upon the roof. Storage of Packing Boxes. All empty packing boxes and crates were stored in the basement of the Government building, thereby saving both time and expense. To prevent, as far as possible, the occurence of fire among these empties, no excelsior or other packing material was allowed to be stored, and a rigid inspection was made daily of the entire basement Passes into Exposition Grounds. No charge was made by the Exposition management, for the admission of persons connected with the Government exhibit, and the usual deposit of three dollars for the photographic pass was waived by request in the case of the Government employees, the Department of Admissions of the Exposition promptly furnishing pass cards and photographic passes on the application of the Secretary of the Board. The total number of passes into the Exposition grounds issued upon request of the Secretary of the Board of Government officials and employees was 462, of which 90 were for the period of installation, 236 for the Exposition period, and the remainder, 136 for the period of re-packing. Passes into the Government Building. With a view to enabling those visitors who could attend the Exposition only on Sundays, and at night, to see the Government exhibit, pass cards were prepared and distributed by the members of the Board, on application, for such hours when the building was closed to the public as would not interfere with any work going on within the building. On some occasions (such as the President's reception), special pass cards were prepared. The Government building was open to visitors every week-day from 9 o'clock A.M. to 6 o'clock P.M. during the period from June 1 to September 1, from which date to October 31, it was closed at 5 o'clock P.M. Detail of Government Employees. For the period of the Exposition, the number of actual details from all branches of the Government service was approximately one hundred. In addition to their regular salaries, officials and employees of the Government detailed to the Exposition were re-imbursed for their actual traveling and subsistence expenses. Freight Transportation. The Missouri Pacific Railway Company extended its tracks to points near both the North and South entrances of the Government Building, where platforms were constructed for unloading and re-loading the exhibits. Owing to the fact that all shipments into Omaha had to be made over land-grant and bond-aided railroads, shipping of Government exhibits was done through the quartermaster offices of the War Department, on regular Army bills of lading; and the settlement of all freight charges had to follow the course adopted by the War and Treasury Department. During the period when shipments were being made to the Exposition, the Board employed W.C. Crawley as a clerk to prepare bills of lading and to keep a record of same, he being assigned to the office of the Depot Quartermaster at the War Department, Washington. Statement of Freight (exhibits, etc.,) Shipped to the Exposition through Quartermaster's Department of the Army: From Washington: Carloads(#) Weight. lbs. Department of State, 1 12,000 Treasury Department, 3 x 30,520 War Department, 0 x 7,367 Department of Justice, 1 x 13,000 Post Office Department, 3 44,000 Navy Department, 4 64,211 Department of the Interior, 3 x 51,445 Department of Agriculture 3 40,351 Smithsonian Institution and Nationa Museum 6 x 88,042 Commission of Fish and Fisheries, 2 26,361 Totals 26 x 377,697 From points other than Washington: Carloads(#) Weight lbs. Treasury Department, 9 x 173,948 War Department, 11 x 263,125 Navy Department, 1 x 22,366 Department of the Interior, 1 x 12,839 Carloads(#) Weight lbs. Department of Agriculture, 2 13,800 Smithsonian Institution and National Museum 0 x 5,820 Commission of Fish and Fisheries, 2 38,000 Board of Management, 0 x 5,034 Totals, 26 x 534,932 _______________________________________________________________________ (#) The signs "X" indicate fractions of carloads. Completion of Government Exhibit. The Installation of the Government exhibit was fully completed before the opening of the Exposition, and on the afternoon of May 31, those members of the Board in Omaha at the time informally received the officials of the Exposition who inspected the building and exhibits. Visit and Reception of President McKinley. The most distinguished of all visitors, the President of the United States, William McKinley, with a notable retinue of civil and military persons, all conspicuous in the successful conduct of the war with Spain just closed, was formally received by the Exposition officials during Peace Jubilee Week, on Wednesday afternoon, October 12, The President, with his guests, accompanied by the President of the Exposition and the Chairman of the Government Board, entered the Government Building at the North entrance and visited successively the exhibit of each Department, being received by the respective Representatives. Later, at about 3 o'clock, the President witnessed from the East porch of the building the drill of the Life-Saving Service upon the lagoon immediately in front, after which, re-entering the building he gave an informal reception to the public in the rotunda. Seats were provided for the Presidential party in the space of the Department of State and in the Rotunda, while other guests were seated in adjacent aisles. The presentations to the President were made by the Chairman of the Board, assisted by the President of the Exposition. An orchestra, seated in the Smithsonian Institution space, furnished appropriate music for the occasion. During the reception, the main aisle was roped off and all doors closed except the North and South, entrance by the former and exit by the latter. Order was maintained by the Government Guard and Exposition guards assisted by the United States infantrymen, marines, and signal corps men, lately returned from the war with Spain, numbering in all about two hundred, the infantrymen being under the command of Major W.M. Van Horne, Twenty-second Regiment. AWARDS. The Exposition management organized a Jury of Awards upon which a number of Government experts who were on duty at the Exposition served at the request of the management. The Government not being a competitive exhibitor, the management decided to express their appreciation of it contributions by granting the following commemorative awards: To Departments and Bureaus participating, "for interesting and instructive exhibits," Commemorative Bronze Medal and Diploma each: (2) Department of State, and Bureau of American Republics, (8) TREASURY DEPARTMENT, and Supervising Architect's Office, Bureau of Engraving and Printing, Life-Saving Service, Bureau of the Mint, Light-House Establishment, Marine-Hospital Service, Coast and Geodetic Survey. (7) WAR DEPARTMENT, and Adjutant General's Office, Quartermaster's Department, Medical Department, Engineer's Department, Ordinance Department, Signal Corps. (1) Department of Justice (6) POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT, and Dead-Letter Office, Division of Mail Equipment, Postage Stamp Division, Transportation Division, Postal Records Division, (4) NAVY DEPARTMENT, and Bureau of Ordnance, Bureau of Equipment, Bureau of Construction and Repairs, (7) DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, and General Land Office, Patent Office, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Bureau of Indian Affairs, for Indian Congress, Bureau of Education, Geological Survey, (10) DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, and Weather Bureau, Bureau of Animal Industry, Division of Chemistry, Division of Entomology, Division of Forestry, Division of Botany, Division of Pomology, Office of Public-Road Inquiries, Office of Fibre Investigations, (9) SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, AND NATIONAL MUSEUM, and Department of Anthropology, Department of Biology, Department of Geology, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bureau of International Exchanges, National Zoological Park, Astrophysical Observatory, (5) Commission of Fish and Fisheries, and Division of Scientific Inquiry, Division of Fish Culture, Division of Fisherievs Statistics, Live Fish Display, To Goverment Officials and Employees "for valuable services rendered" in planning, preparing or installing exhibits, Commemorative Bronze Medal and Diploma each: DEPARTMENT OF STATE, (4) William H. Michael, Representative, J.M. Riddle, Chief Special Agent, Frederic Emory, Director, Bureau of American Republics. TREASURY DEPARTMENT (9) Lyman J. Gage, Secretary of the Treasury, C.E. Kemper, Representative, James K. Taylor, Supervising Architect, Edward A. Crane, Supervising Architect's Office, Sumner I. Kimball, General Superintendent, Life-Saving Service, Lieut. C.H. McClellan, Life-Saving Service, H.M. Knowles, Life-Saving Service, Dr. J.J. Knowles, Life-Saving Service, A.W. Downing, Bureau of the Mint. WAR DEPARTMENT (4) Russell A. Alger, Secretary of War, George D. Meiklejohn, Assistant Secretary of War, Major H.C. Ward, Representative, Serg. J.J. Hittinger, Assistant, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (4) William Griggs, Attorney General, Frank Strong, Representative, R.V. La Dow, Examiner, Carrie Jenkins Harris, Custodian of Exhibits, POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT (4) Charles Emory Smith, Postmaster General J.B. Brownlow, Representative, W.G. Brownlow, Assistant, S.I. Slack, Curator, Postal Museum. NAVY DEPARTMENT (7) John D. Long, Secretary of the Navy, Lieut. C.M. McCormick, Representative, Lieut.-Comdr. L.C. Logan, " Lieut.-Comdr. E.M. Stedman, " Capt. Charles O'Neil, Chief, Bureau of Ordinance, Comdr. R.B. Bradford, Chief Bureau of Equipment and Repairs, Philip Hichborn, Chief Constructor, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR: Cornelius N. Bliss, Secretary of the Interior, F. W. Clarke, Representative, C.D. Walcott, Director, Geological Survey, William A. Jones, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, J.C. Boykin, Bureau of Education, Malcolm Seaton, Patent Office, T.H. Mitchell, " " T.A. Witherspoon, " " Emily S. Cook, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Alice C. Fletcher, " " " " F.P. Metzger, Chief Clerk, General Land Office, J.K. Hillers, Geological Survey, N.H. Darton, for relief Map of Nebraska, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (12) James Wilson, Secretary of Agriculture, J.H. Brigham, Representative, Charles Richards Dodge, Chief Special Agent, G.B. Brackett, Pomologist, L.O. Howard, Entomologist, A.M. Farrington, Bureau of Animal Industry, C.F. Marvin, Weather Bureau, W.N. Irwin, Division of Pomology, G.L. Spencer, Division of Chemistry, Geo. B. Sudworth, Division of Forestry, Sylvester H. Dewey, Division of Botany, B.H. Dorsett, Division of Physiology and Pathology. SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION AND NATIONAL MUSEUM (25) S.P. Langley, Secretary, Richard Rathburn, Assistant Secretary, Frederick W. True, Representative, William Van Zandt Cox, Chief Special Agent, and Secretary of Government Board. National Museum. W.H. Holmes, Head Curator of Anthropology, George P. Merrill, Head Curator of Geology, J. Louis Willige, Acting Chief Clerk, Leonard Stejneger, Curator of Reptiles and Batrachians, National Museum (Continued) Otis T. Mason, Curator of Ethnology, J.E. Watkins, " " Technology, E.A. Lucas, " " Anatomy, Cyrus Adler, Division of Archaeology, Charles Schuchert, Division of Paleontology, Wirt Tassin, Division of Minerology, W.H. Ashmead, Division of Insects, J.E. Benedict, Division of Invertibrates, C.C. Maynard, Division of Technology, Walter Hough, Division of Ethnology, Charles W. Richmond, Division of Birds, Barton A. Bean, Division of Fishes, W.H. Newhall, Division of Geology, T.W. Sweeney, Division of Ethnology, J.S. Goldsmith, Supervisor of Construction. Bureau of Animal Ethnology: W.J. McGee, Ethnologist, in charge, James Mooney, Ethnologist, COMMISSION OF FISH AND FISHERIES (11) George M. Bowers, Commissioner, H.M. Smith, Assistant Commissioner, W. de D. Ravenel, Representative, G.A. Schneider, Assistant, R.J. Conway, Assistant, W.P. Sauerhoff, Assistant, S.P. Bartlett, Station Superintendent, Frank N. Clark, " " E.A. Tulian, " " H.D. Dean, " " E.F. Locke, " " The total number of awards, as above given, was 152, which number was apportioned as follows; For Interesting and For Valuable Instructive exhibits: Services Rendered. Department of State, 2 4 Treasury Department, 8 9 War Department, 7 4 Department of Justice, 1 4 Post Office Department, 6 4 Navy Department, 4 7 Department of the Interior, 7 13 Department of Agriculture, 10 12 Smithsonian Institute, and National Museum 9 25 Commission of Fish and Fisheries, 5 11 59 93 Pamphlets Distributed. Four Departments prepared pamphlets which were distributed to the public viz: "The Department of State of the United States. How it was formed, what are its duties, and how it is run." Post Office Department: "A Brief History of the Postal Service" Navy Department: "Ships and Weapons of the Navy." Department of the Interior: "Facts Relating to Education". Cost of the Exhibit. The total cost of the Government, exclusive of the construction of the Government building, was, $137,771.37, divided as follows: Exhibit of: Department of State,---------------------------$ 4,025.61 Treasury Department,--------------------------- 16,036.49 War Department,-------------------------------- 6,561.36 Department of Justice,------------------------- 2,127.27 Post Office Department,------------------------ 9,186.54 Navy Department,------------------------------- 8,871.13 Department of the Interior,-------------------- 12,285.81 Department of Agriculture,--------------------- 10,059.56 Smithsonian Institution and National Museum,--- 21.583.31 Commission of Fish and Fisheries,-------------- 21,113.23 General expense of the Board, maintenance of the building, pay of Guards, etc.,----- 25,921.06 $137,771.37 Exposition Postal Service. In addition to the Department exhibit, the Postmaster-General established a branch working post office in the Government building for the transaction of all kinds of post office business. It was located in the transverse section at the West side of the building, and J.I. Woodard, Assistant Postmaster at Omaha, was in charge. The following is a statement of the business transacted in the five months from June to October inclusive: Packages and letters registered, 477 Registered packages and letters received, 715 Stamp sales $4,718.58 Money Orders issued, 1600 28,111.58 Money Orders paid, 59 814.45 Total volume of business $33,644.61 A door opened at the Western end of the transcept into the post office, through which all mail pouches were received and dispatched, and on Sundays, all deliveries made. Exhibitions of Life-Saving Service. A building for housing the boats and equipment of the Life-Saving Service exhibit was constructed near the West end of the lagoon, in the rear of the South colonnade, and exhibitions were given daily, at 4 o'clock P.M., in front of the Government building. All the usual drill pertaining to the processes of live-saving from a sinking vessel was given to the great delight of western visitors, who as a rule, knew little of the service. Lieutenant C.H. McLellan, of the Revenue Cutter Service, collected and prepared the exhibit and arranged for the drills of the crew. Just before the opening of the Exposition he was called to active naval duty in connection with the war with Spain, and did not return until during the last month of the Exposition, then resuming charge of the exhibit. In his absence the exhibit was in charge of Captain H.M. Knowles, Assistant Superintendent of the third life-saving district. Captain Henry Cleary, of the Marquette (Mich.) life-saving station, was in charge of the crew of eight surfmen. The daily program was as follows: 1. Life-savers go on patrol; discover signals of distress; line fired over wreck. 2. Men saved in breeches-buoy; man overboard; rescue with life-boat. 3. The capsize; apparently drowned; resuscitation. It is not too much to say that the life-saving drill soon became one of the most attractive features of the Exposition. INDIAN CONGRESS. In the Indian Appropriation Act approved by President McKinley on July 1, 1898, $40,000 was appropriated for the assembling of representatives of the various tribes of Indians in an encampment on the Exposition grounds. This encampment was opened on August 4, and comprised over 500 Indians, representing thirty-five distinct tribes. The exhibition was known as the Indian Congress, and was authorized by the Government as a part of the Exposition. It was, however, under the control of the Secretary of the Interior, and directed by the Commission of Indian Affairs, being entirely separate from the Government exhibits under the direction of the Board. Co-operation of Exposition Officials. The Board desires to acknowledge the hearty co-operation of all the Exposition officials, and takes pleasure in mentioning the following named gentlemen who on many occasions extended unusual courtesies: Gurdon W. Wattles, John A. Wakefield, Edward Rosewater, Freemen P. Kirkendall, A.C. Foster, William N. Babcock, T.S. Clarkson, Edward E. Bruce, H.B. Hardt, J.M. Woolworth, J.E. Utt, F.W. Taylor, A.H. Griffith, and E.W. Lee. Efficient Assistants. Recognition is here made of the efficent and attentive services rendered by James L. Farmer, clerk to the Secretary; and by Robert L. Stone, detailed from the National Museum in connection with the exhibit of the Smithsonian Institution and National Museum, who co-operated in the work of the secretarys office and assisted in the preparation of this report. J.H. BRIGHAM, Chairman Board of Management. W.V. COX, Secretary Board of Management.