of the


The exhibit of the War Department at the Trans-Mississippi and International
Exposition was prepared and installed under the direct supervision of Major
Henry C. Ward, 16th United States Infantry, Representative of the War
Department, and in this work he was very ably assisted by Post Qr. Mr.
Sergeant, Joseph J. Hittinger, United States Army.

The exhibit represented five branches of the Army, viz:

The Adjutant General's, Quartermaster's, Engineers, Ordnance, Medical, and
Signal Corps Departments.

ADJUTANT GENERAL'S DEPARTMENT--The exhibit of this department consisted of the
following Military Maps:

Outline Military Map of the United States, giving complete list of garrisoned
posts and their quota of troops;

Military Map of the Island of Cuba;

Military Map of the Philippine Islands.

QUARTERMASTER'S DEPARTMENT-The exhibit from this Department consisted
principally of a series of lay figures showing the evolution of the uniforms of
officers and enlisted men of the United States Army, from the Revolutionary
period up the present date, arranged singly and in groups as follows:

1.  Group of four officers of the Revolutionary Army, 1776, in full-dress
uniform, representing a Brigadier General, an Adjutant General and two Field

2.  Group of four men of the 1776 period, representing two privates in
full-dress uniform, and a Kentucky and a Maryland Rifle-man, each clad in the
peculiar garments worn by the riflemen of their respective States.

3.  Group of four officers and one enlisted man of 1813 period in full-dress
uniform, representing a Major General, a Brigadier General, a Captain of
Artillery, a Field Officer, and a Private of the Infantry.

4.  Captain of Infantry in overcoat.

5.  Group of two officers of the Mexican War period, 1846, in full-dress
uniforms, representing a Major and Topographical Engineer, and a captain of
Infantry; the uniform and equipments of the Major of Engineers having been
actually worn by an officer of this grad during said war.

6.  Group of five enlisted men of the Mexican war period, 1846, in full-dress
uniforms, representing a First Sergeant of Mounted Rifles, sergeant of
Infantry, Sergeant of Dragoons and a Private of Dragoons and Infantry.

7.  Colonel of Cavalry, 1861--65, in full-dress uniform.

8.  Private of Infantry, 1861--65, in un-dress uniform.

9.  Zouave of Pennsylvania Regiment, 1861-65, in full-dress uniform.

10.  Equestrian group of two officers and one enlisted man, of present period,
in full-dress uniform, representing a captain of Cavalry, Captain of Artillery,
and a Sergeant Major of Cavalry.

11.  Group of four officers, of present period, in full-dress uniform,
representing a Colonel of Infantry, Lieutenant Colonel of Medical department,
Major of Engineers, and a Lieutenant of Ordnance.

12.  Group of four figures, in full-dress uniform, representing a lieutenant
Colonel and Adjutant general, Major and Quartermaster, Cadet United States
Military Academy, of present period, and a cadet United States Military
Academy, 1820.

13.  Group of three figures, of present period, representing a Private of
Infantry in heavy marching order, Private of Infantry in light marching order,
and a Private of Infantry in winter uniform with canvass overcoat, fur cap, fur
gloves, and overshoes.

14.  Cavalry Trumpeter, of present period, in full-dress uniform with horse and
equipments,--standing in position of preparing to mount.

15.  Private of Cavalry, of present period, mounted, in field uniform--Khaki
blouse and trousers.

16.  Group of three figures, of present period, representing a Sergeant of
Artillery and a Sergeant of Infantry, in full-dress uniform, and a Sergeant of
Infantry in field uniform--(Khaki blouse and trousers).

17.  Group of four figures, of present period, representing a Post. Qr. Mr.
Sergeant, Commissary Sergeant, and Sergeant of Signal Corps, in full-dress
uniforms, and a Hospital Steward in un-dress uniform.

18.  Lay figure, Puritan Soldier of 1620, represented as being on the way to
church, with gun on his shoulder and bible in his hand.

The Quartermaster's Department also exhibited the following:

A case of gold-lace chevrons, indicating the rank and branch of service of
non-commissioned officers and privates.

A case of cloth chevrons, indicating the rank and branch of service of
non-commissioned officers and other enlisted men.

Lay figure, mule with new style of pack saddle (Aparejo) and pack, showing
exact manner of using the pack saddle in actual service.

Pack saddle, old style.

The regulation bunting flags,--garrison, post and storm.

Silken colors and standards, regimental and battalion.

Silken Guidons, cavalry and artillery.

The regulation United States Army tentage, consisting of a hospital, wall
common, shelter, and conical wall tents; the last named, conical, having the
latest improved combination tent pole and stove pipe, and tent stove.

A complete set of dormitory furniture, for two men, consisting of iron
bedsteads, woven wire mattresses, cotton mattresses and covers, pillows, pillow
cases, bed sheets, mosquito bars, barrack chairs, and lockers were also shown
in connection with the tentage.

ENGINEER'S DEPARTMENT--The exhibit of this Department consisted of the
following models:

1.  Model of St. Mary's Falls Canal Locks, showing the locks of 1881 and 1895. 
The latter being known as the 800-foot lock.

2.  Model of Pontoon Bridge Equipage, showing the different ways by which a
pontoon bridge can be constructed.

3.  Mortar Battery, showing a complete battery of sixteen mortars, placed in
four pits containing four mortars each.

4.  Model of Hell gate Flood Lock, East River, New York, showing the galleries
and the manner in which the explosive required for the blast was placed.

5.  Model of Lift-Gun Battery, showing the gun and its platform placed behind a
suitable parapet, where by hydraulic power it is raised and lowered at

6.  Model of Key West Harbor, Florida, showing the projected improvements of
the present bar channel.

7.  Model of Davis Lock and Dam, located five miles below Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania, on the Ohio River, showing the lock and movable dam.

8.  Model of Kanawha Lock and Dam, Great Kanawha River, showing the movable
dams used in the improvement.

9.  Model of King's Disappearing Gun-Carriage.

10.  Sub-Marine Mine, triple group, showing how some are anchored, connected
and fired.

Nine photographic transparencies of the following Engineer works, were also

(a)  Washington Aqueduct, Rock Creek bridge.

(b)  State, War and Navy Building, Washington, D.C.

(c)  Davis Island Lock and Dam.

(d)  Muscle Sholes Canal, Tennessee River.

(e)  Snag Boat on Mississippi River.

(f)  St. Mary's Falls Canal and Lock.

(g)  Destruction of Schooner by Submarine mine explosion.

(h)  Cascades, Colombia River.

(i)  Dry Tortugas Light, Florida Reef.

ORDNANCE DEPARTMENT-- The exhibit of this Department was not nearly as complete
as was originally intended, as the demands made on the Department, owing to the
War with Spain, prevented the making of a display of heavy ordinance and
materials.  There was shown a very interesting collection of small arms, in six
gun racks as follows.

1.  Gun rack, with 18 miscellaneous arms, historic and antique, various
patterns and dates, full description of each gun.

2.  Gun rack, with 29 miscellaneous muskets, rifled and smooth-bore, American
and foreign manufacture, various models and calibres, full description on each

3.  Gun rack, with 2 breech-loading rifles and a muzzle-loading rifles, various
models and dates of manufacture; full description on each gun.

4.  Gun rack, with 22 revolvers and pistols, American and foreign manufacture;
5 rifles picked upi on battle-grounds; 13 rifles and carbines captured from
hostile Indians; full description on each gun.

5.  Gun rack, with 23 carbines, American and foreign manufacture various models
and calibres; full description on each gun.

6.  Gun rack, with 25 rifles, breech and muzzle loading, American and foreign
manufacture; full description on each gun.

7.  A series, mounted on two boards, showing method of manufacture of the
different kinds of swords, sabres and scabbards, used in the United States

8.  Samples, mounted on boards, of the various fuzes used for shells and
armor-piercing shot.

9.  Samples, mounted on a board, of 30 calibre ammunition,  showing the
different processes of manufactures.

The following relics of the War with Spain, were added to the exhibit after the
surrender of the Spanish army and the City of Santiago de Cuba, to the American
forces on the 17th of July, 1898.

The first Spanish trophy secured in Cuba-a regimental Spanish flag, which was
captured at the battle of Juragasita, Cuba, on June 23, 1898 by company "B",
22nd United States Infantry, from Fort Crook, Nebraska:  the names of the men
who made this capture being Corporal Nueman, Corporal Boyle, and Privates
Keyser, Cooley and Houghsalling.

A large Spanish flag, taken from the converted cruiser "Mexico" in the harbor
of Santiago de Cuba, July 17, 1898, the date of the surrender of the City to
the American forces.

Twenty Mauser rifles, captured at Santiago; these rifles being exhibited in the
identical condition they were in when taken from the hands of the Spanish

Ten bronze muzzle-loading cannon, taken form the forts in the harbor of
Santiago de Cuba, on the surrender of the city on July 17, 1898; 7 six-inch and
3 four-inch guns.  They were pronounced by all who saw them as being remarkably
fine specimens of ancient cannon.  They were all made in the gun foundry at
Douay, France, the dates of manufacture being  from 1693 to 1755.  Each gun is
highly ornamental and bears the coat-of-arms of the Bourbons of France, as well
as two Latin mottoes, viz:  "Ultima Ration regum", (The last argument of
Kings); "Nec pluribus impar" (Unequaled among many), and a distinctive name. 
The history of these guns is not known, nor how the Spanish gained possession
of them; but that they are valuable trophys of war, all must admit.

The Santiago was balloon which was used in the battles in front of Santiago de
Cuba, by American forces under the command of General Shafter.  On June 30,
1898, this balloon was sent up four times, carrying members of general
Shafter's staff, officers of the Engineer Corps, United States Army, and the
Cuban General, Castillo.  During the advance of the Army, on July 1, the
balloon was sent up and when near the point known as Nell's Crossing, a
scathing fire was poured into the inflated bag.  Three shells from a shrapnel
battery tore great holes in it, and showers of bullets made it resemble a great
sieve.  The balloon was very near the fighting lines, parading up and down the
lines and served to mark the American's position to the enemy, who concentrated
all their fire in that location.  Its elevation when punctured was 350 feet. 
The balloon finally landed in the San Juan River, and was recovered after the

MEDICAL DEPARTMENT.-The exhibit of the Department was as follows:

1.  A progressive and complete series, showing the development of the
microscope from the sixteenth century  to the present date.

2.  A series of pathological specimens, showing military injuries including the
most interesting specimens that have been sent by military surgeons to the
Surgeon General's Office, during the last forty years.

3.  A sectional model showing the construction, manner of heating and
ventilating, of the latest pattern of United States Army hospitals.

4.  Model of Hower Hospital.  This hospital was the largest hospital erected by
the United States Government during the war of 1861-65; it had a capacity of
8,600 patients; was located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and was first
occupied January 1, 1863.

5.  Model of hospital railroad train, used for the transportation of      
wounded soldiers during the war of 1861-65, consisting of five       cars; two
arranged with hammocks three tiers high, one dispensary       and operating
car, one dining-room and kitchen car, and a freight       car.

6.  Hospital pack saddle, used on packmule for carrying surgical and medical
chests in the field.

7.  Mule with travois harness, travois and litter, showing the manner of
transporting a wounded soldier where an ambulance could not be used.

8.  Two photographs of the burial of the dead at Wounded Knee, South Dakota.

9.  Was model of human head, showing gun-shot wound.  This exhibit was very
real and true to life, and probably attracted more attention than any other
single exhibit at the exposition.

10.  Lay figure, Private of Hospital corps, equipped for the field, with hand
litter, canteen, haversack and tin cup, and Hospital corps Pouch.  In this
pouch were two of the first-aid packages, which did much towards the speedy
recovery of our soldiers who were wounded in the battles in front of Santiago.

11.  Model of Untied States Hospital Ward.

12.  United States Hospital Field Chest, containing a fullband complete
assortment of medicines (mostly in tablet form) for the treatment of sick and
wounded in the field.

13.  United States Hospital Field Surgical Chest, containing such instruments
and dressings as experience has demonstrated as the most useful for field

14.  United States Hospital Field Desk, containing all the blanks, books and
papers required to keep a correct list of sick and wounded men.

15.  United States Hospital Food Chest, arranged with compartments and boxes
for the various articles of food required for the field hospital.

16.  United States Hospital Mess Chest, containing all the kitchen utensils
required for a small field hospital.

17.  Folding Mess Table, with mess furniture and folding chairs.

18.  Folding, adjustable cot for field service, and folding bedside tables.

19.  New pattern of Regulation, United States Army, Red Cross Ambulance.

20.  Field Hospital Flag.

21.  A series of publications issued by the Surgeon General's office.

SIGNAL CORPS.-The exhibit of this Department in the Government building,
consisted of the following:

1.  Anemeter.

2.  Copper signal torches, for night signaling.

3.  Copper canteens, used to carry oil for signal torches.

4.  Aluminum field glasses.

5.  Telescope, for night signaling.          

6.  Heliograph, or sun telegraph; complete outfit.

7.  Telegraph and telephone instruments combined.

8.  Signal flags and staffs.

9.  Cable knapsack and wire.

10.  Wire hand reel.

The following relics of the famous Greely Arctic Exposition were displayed as
part of the Signal corps exhibit:

1.  Seven photographs of Arctic scenes secured by the expedition.

2.  Improved sledge, constructed and used by expedition.  This sledge was used
by Sergeants Rice and Brainard in unsuccessful attempt to cross Baird inlet to
obtain the beef that had been cached there.  Sergeant Rice died on this sledge
during the trip, and was buried in the snow.

3.Car with distress signal, which was used by the expedition.

4.A large glass case containing the following:

Medicine chest;
Seal skin boots, boiled to make the last meal of the survivors;
Improvised teaspoon;
Improvised scale, used to weigh rations;
Horn knife;
Hatchet and piece of flag, carried by Lockwood to farthest north; 
Parts of books.

In addition to the above, the Signal Corps had an exhibit outside of the
Government building, consisting of was and signal balloons and military
signaling and field telephone and telegraph apparatus, as follows:

Three large balloons, of 21,000 cubic feet capacity each.  Ascensions and
practical exhibitions were given whenever the wind and weather permitted.  In
the operation of the plant for these balloons, a balloon house, 50 by 50 by 50
feet was constructed,and iron and wooden tanks were made for use in generating
the hydrogen gas, required to inflate the balloons.  In the manufacture of the
gas,large quantities of iron filings and vitrol were used.  There was also a
detachment of twenty-three enlisted men of the Signal Corps detailed to perform
the work incident to the exhibit.

Twenty small signal balloons, capacity 150 cubit feet.

Heliographs, practical exhibition of which were frequently given.

Signal flags, practical exhibitions of the manner of using which were
frequently given.

Acetyline signal lanterns for night signaling.

Wire and battery wagons, used for the construction of field telegraph and
telephone lines.

The following-named men were detailed for duty in connection with the war
Department exhibit, during the entire exhibition period:

Hospital Steward David A. Eberly, U.S.A.,
Sergeant Harry F. Jordan, Signal Corps, U.S.A.,
Corporal David R. Hotter, Company "A", Battalion of Engineers, U.S.A.,

The following is a statement of the expenditures made on account of the War
Department exhibit:

Services, Clerical,----------------------------   160.00
Travel and subsistence,------------------------ 1,380.36
Freight, cartage, expressage, etc.,------------ 1,541.11
Contract or special services,------------------   363.87
Exhibition cases, frames, etc.,----------------   663.60
Supplies,--------------------------------------   768.88
Decorations, partitions, etc.,-----------------   229.12
Heat,light, power,-----------------------------     4.00
Office expenses,-------------------------------    32.07
Telegraphic service,---------------------------    27.80
Total $6,561.36


Major, Sixteenth Infantry, U.S.A.

Representative, War Department.

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